Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines (Nycticebus & Loris ssp.)


This husbandry manual has been made possible through the assistance of the many people over the past several years who helped write, compile, edit, and otherwise contribute to this publication. Among those who assisted with the manuscript and are not acknowledged elsewhere include: Joe Bussiere, Hanifa Ysaguirre, Danica Reine, Jane Ruddick, Noelle Tornatore, and Sai Ly. Karen Worley, Marissa Sorbelo, and Darlene Rosemary provided invaluable technical editing services. Barry Fass-Holmes assisted with several of the graphs.

The editors thank Fiona Anne Fisher, editor of International Zoo Yearbook, for permission to use information from publication (Schulze 1998). Dr. Plesker, of Paul Ehrlich Institute (Langen), made new postmortum examinations on Lorises and allowed use and quotations of unpublished information.

Janet Hawes and Jacqueline Ogden express their appreciation to Dr. Donna Iallegio, Philadelphia Zoological Society, for her detailed review of an earlier copy of their manuscript. Helpful information was also provided by Bernhard Meier and Helga Schulze, Ruhr-University Bochum; the Duke University Primate Center; and Ewa Trzesowka, Ogrod Zoologiczny.

Meg Sutherland-Smith and Ilse Stalis thank Drs. David Sutton and Patricia Feeser from the Duke University Primate Center, who provided information for their section. The data were compiled while David Sutton was a visiting veterinary student from Cambridge, England. They would also like to thank Dr. Andy Teare for providing the clinical pathology data from ISIS, and they are grateful to Helga Schulze (Ruhr-Universitšt Bochum, Bochum, Germany) for providing information for Loris tardigradus.

The satellite map, a part of which is pictured in the front cover figure, can be obtained from: Geo-Space, Jacob-Haringer-Str. Nr. 1, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
The funding for publication costs was generously provided by the Ocelots, a support group of the
Zoological Society of San Diego.



The purpose of this manual is to provide basic husbandry guidelines to loris managers, caretakers, and veterinarians. The information in this manual has been compiled from numerous articles, reports, and personal experiences by the authors and editors. Because new information is continuously being discovered, it is tempting to keep delaying publication until the husbandry manual is even more complete. However, as an increasing number of institutions become involved with the management of these specialized prosimians, it has become essential to have this information available in a usable format.

When the pygmy loris was first introduced to the Western Hemisphere a little over a decade ago, its basic biology and husbandry requirements were virtually unknown. Pygmy loris management techniques were derived from methods that had previously been developed for slow and slender lorises. Researchers and managers are just beginning to understand some of the characteristics that make the pygmy loris unique.

The three loris types each have unique characteristics that are species specific. However, because they share many of the same management methods, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics, the editors decided that information about all the three loris species should be included in this volume.

In 1995, The Pygmy Loris Species Survival Plan (SSP) was established through the American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). One of the goals of this group is to develop a selfsustaining captive population of this species. Along with the Pygmy Loris Masterplan (Fitch-Snyder, 1998), this husbandry manual is intended as a tool to assist toward this goal.

The editors plan to periodically distribute updated and new information to SSP Institution Representatives and other appropriate recipients. Users of this publication are encouraged to maintain this manual as a working document and contribute additional material for future updates.

Helga Schulze is compiling additional information, particularly for slender loris husbandry (see also Schulze, 1998); readers who are interested can contact her directly via e-mail (Helga.Schulze@loris-conservation.org) or at her University address, which is listed in the authors section of this publication.

In addition to printed materials, some loris information is available via the Internet. Here, new data and amendments to printed information may be published in the future. Two addresses, as an example: Loris homepage by Dr. K. I. Anna Nekaris, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University; address: http://www.nocturnalprimate.org. In http://www.loris-conservation.org/database/, a web site for husbandry and conservation information and captive care database (all species) is available.

   Helena Fitch-Snyder
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Management of Lorises in Captivity. A Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines (Nycticebus & Loris ssp.)
Edited by: Helena Fitch-Snyder and Helga Schulze. Compiler: Lena C. Larsen
Last amendment: 2 January 2003


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