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Health database for lorises (Loris, Nycticebus) and pottos (Arctocebus, Perodicticus), prosimian primates
An illustrated review

Compiler: Helga Schulze. (Ruhr-University Bochum) in cooperation with (in alphabetic order) Helena Fitch-Snyder (US prosimian taxon advisory group), Vijitha Perera (wildlife veterenarian, Sri Lanka), Kathrin Petry (veterinarian), Roland Plesker (veterinarian and primate pathologist, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute), Ulrike Streicher (veterinarian, Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam), and others (see acknowledgements and references), revised and improved by Roland Plesker (Paul-Ehrlich-Institute). Includes data by Meg Sutherland-Smith and Ilse Stalis, San Diego Zoo61:
 
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This publication is not supposed to replace veterinarian care, but to allow early recognition of health problems and to provide information for veterinarians

Unwellbeing or disease in Loris can sometimes be recognized by behaviour as shown in the figures in this database. But the animals have a tendency to develop regular daily habits and to maintain them even in cases of disease; therefore, reduced food consumption may be the only sign of psychic or health problems. Increasing weakness may be concealed, only becoming apparent by unusually "comfortable", energy-saving postures during sleeping period, until the animal suddenly collapses and dies within short time.

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Down to content of chapter:
First aid
Care and treatment
Judgement of health: changes, symptoms
Judgement of wellbeing and problems from behaviour
Review of diseases observed in lorises or pottos
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Injections, placement of transponders: in preparation
Blood values, blood pressure, body temperature, other
Anatomy
References
   Necropsy methods (in: field methods chapter)
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See also: Streicher 2004: dissertation on Nycticebus pygmaeus: Download: PDF file, ca. 5.7 MB, with a review of diseases diagnosed in confiscated N. pygmaeus in the Endangered Primate Rescue Centre, Vietnam.
 

Table of contents Health chapter of the husbandry manual for Asian lorisines  
Text (HTML), Tables (PDF, file sizes averaging at 100 KB) Figures
1) Introduction: typical problems in the Loridae    
Typical health problems observed in lorises or pottos: text review
  .
Problems caused by environmental stress; general susceptibility to stress
Figure: Behaviour indicating environmental stress
.
Problems caused by social stress
Figure: Behaviour indicating social stress
.
"Wasting disease": loss of weight in captive animals (in preparation)
  .
Trichobezoar problems (in preparation)
Figure: Trichobezoar problems
.
Abnormal behaviour
  .
2) First aid    
First aid for lorises and pottos, first care for confiscated animals 
 
.
3) Some recommendations for care and treatment   
General recommendations (in preparation)
  .
Preventive measures, examinations
  .
Handling, protection of humans (toxin, disease transmission)
  .
Experience with medicine, treatment (in preparation)
Figure: correct placement of injections, transponders
(in preparation)
.
Anesthesia, tranquilizers : some general information;
Experience with anesthesia in N. pygmaeus at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, by U. Streicher
  ..
Ageing, needs of old animals
  .
Quarantain
  .
4) Judgement of health, diagnosis of problems:
    internal and external changes, symptoms, lesions
General judgement of health and nutritional state
(in preparation)
Figure: Dehydration, emaciation in N. pygmaeus
.
 
Figure: Judgement of the nutritional state in Loris
.
Table 1: Behavioural signs of health problems
Figure: Judgement of behaviour: facial expressions
.
 
Figure: Behaviour evaluated as a sign of wellbeing
.
 
Figure: Behavioural signs of weakness or unwellbeing
.
Table 2: Externally visible changes (hair, skin, body weight)
Figure: Changes of fur or skin indicating health problems
.
Table 3: Traces found in the cage
Figure: Signs of problems found in the cage
.
Table 4: Postmortem examinations; organ lesions diagnosed
 
.
5) Review of diseases  
Table 5: Non-infectious, environmental health problems
  .
Table 6: bacterial infections
 
.
Table 7: mycoses
  .
Table 8: viral infections
  .
Table 9: protozoan infections
Figure: protozoan parasites (in preparation)
.
Table 10: verminous parasites
Figure: verminous parasites
.
Table 11: arthropod endoparasites
Figure: arthropod endoparasites
.
Table 12: arthropod ektoparasites
Figure: arthropod ektoparasites (in preparation)
.
6) Blood values, blood pressure, body temperature, other  
Methods for taking blood samples
 
.
Table 13: Diagnoses concerning blood and body fluids (except urine)
 
.
Table 14 a: Body temperature and other values
 
.
Table 14 b: Blood values
 
.
Intestinal flora (in preparation)
 
.
7) Anatomy  
 
Figure: Intestine
.
 
Figure: Blood vessels
.
 
Figure: Muscles (in preparation)
.
 
Figure: Skeleton
.
 
Figure: Visible skin glands
.
8) References    
References in the order of numbers mentioned in the tables
  .
References alphabetically
  .

 

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Conservation database for lorises (Loris, Nycticebus) and pottos (Arctocebus, Perodicticus), prosimian primates
Last amendment: 12 September 2005

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