Chapter Index

Disease database for lorises and pottos: references
in the order of numbers noted in the disease tables and texts

Go to alphabetical references

1) Flügger, M.; Pfeiffer, J., 1992: Eine kommentierte Bibliographie zu den Krankheiten der Lemuren. Pp. 273-290 in: Lemuren im Zoo, Ceska, V.; Hoffmann, H.-U.; Winkelsträter, K.-H. (eds.), Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin.

2) Gass, H., 1987: Affen. Pp. 1-43 in: Krankheiten der Wildtiere, Gabrisch, K.; Zwart, P. (eds.), Schlütersche , Hannover.

3) Whitney, R. A., 1979: Primate medicine and husbandry; Primates as pets. Pp. 429-445 in: Veterinary clinics of North America: small animal practice - Vol. 9, no. 3.

4) Mehlhorn, H.; Düwel, D.; Raether, W., 1993: Diagnose und Therapie der Parasitosen von Haus-, Nutz- und Heimtieren. 2. Aufl., Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

5) Pschyrembel: Klinisches Wörterbuch. 257. Aufl., 1995. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

6) España, C., 1971: Review of some outbreaks of viral disease in captive nonhuman primates. Laboratory animal science 21 (6): 1023-1031.

7) Kurstak, E.; Kurstak, C. (eds.), 1977: Comparative diagnosis of viral diseases, Vol. II: human and related viruses. Academic Press, New York.

8) Peters, J. C., 1966: An epizootic of monkeypox at Rotterdam zoo. Int. Zoo Yearb. 6: 274-275.

9) Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W., 1975: Lesser bushbabies ( Galago senegalensis) may be susceptible to the CR 326 hepatitis A virus. South African Journal of Science 71: 310-311.

10) Manley, G. H., 1966: Prosimians as laboratory animals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 17: 11-39.

11) Chang, J.; Wagner, J. L.; Kornegay, R. W., 1980: Fatal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in captive bushbabies. JAVMA 177 (9): 820-821.

12) Mair, N. S.; Path, F. C.; White, G. D.; Schubert, F. K.; Harbourne, J. F., 1970: Yersinia enterocolitica infection in the bushbaby (Galago). Veterinary Record 86: 69-71.

13) Poelma, F. G.; Borst, G. H. A.; Zwart, P., 1977: Yersinia enterocolitica infections in nonhuman primates. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 69: 3-9.

14) Kohn, D. F.; Haines, D. E., 1977: Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis). Laboratory animal science 27 (2): 279-280.

15) Unpublished data from the breeding colony at Ruhr-University, including data by B. Meier and post mortem reports from animals from this colony by Dr. Plesker, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut.

16) Mehlhorn, H.; Peters, W., 1983: Diagnose der Parasiten des Menschen. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

17) Osman Hill, W. C., 1937: Treatment of the slender loris in captivity. Loris, June 1937: 85-88.

18) Gupta, N. K.; Dutt, K., 1975: On 3 nematode parasites of the genus Subulura from India. Rivista di parassitologia 36 (2-3): 185-188.

19) Quentin, J. C.; Krishnasamy, M., 1975: Nematodes of the genus Spirura: parasites of Tupaia and Nycticebus in Malaysia. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée 50 (6): 795-812.

20) Krishnamoorthy, R. V.; Srihari, K.; Rahaman, H.; Rajasekharaiah, G. L., 1978: Nematode parasites of the slender loris Loris tardigradus . Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B, 87 (3): 17-22.

21) Quentin, J. C.; Krishnasami, M., 1979: Morphology of the ricularid Pterygodermatites nycticebi, Nematoda, Riculariidae, of the slow loris. Annales de Parasitologie humaine et comparée 54 (5): 527-532.

22) Bain, O.; Tibayrenc, M.; Mak, J. W., 1979: 2 species of Breinlia , filarioidea from a squirrel in Malaysia. Bulletin du Museum National d´Histoire Naturelle, Section A, zoologie, biologie et écologie animales, 1 (1): 191-198.

23) Xu, J.; Ren, Y.; Yuan, Y., 1981: Studies on the morphology and life cycle of Breinlia sergenti. Acta Zoologica Sinica 27 (4): 365-370.

24) Palotay, J. L.; Uno, H., 1975: Hydatid disease in four nonhuman primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Assciation 167 (7): 615-618.

25) Berger, G., 195(6?): Befall eines Potto (Perodicticus potto Geoffr.) durch Pentastomiden. Source? Zoo Dresden.

26) Müller, E. F.; Nieschalk, U.; Meier, B., 1985: Thermoregulation in the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). Folia primatologica 44 : 216-226.

27) Durrell, J.; 1965: Slender loris. J. Wildlife Nature Protection Soc. Sri Lanka 10: 202.

28) Cowgill, U. M., 1977: A myeloliposarcoma in a female Perodicticus potto: mineralogical and elemental chemical analysis. Journal of Medical Primatology 6 (2): 114-118.

29) Eggert, R., 1960: Zur Frage des traumatischen Diabetes und seiner Begutachtung. Dissertation, Medizinische Akademie Düsseldorf.

30) Steffens, I., 1936: Zur Kenntnis der Diabetes durch Trauma. Dissertation, Universität Würzburg.

31) Osman Hill, W. C., 1953: Primates: Comparative anatomy and taxonomy. Vol. I, Strepsirhini. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

32) Post mortem reports from cooperating institutions (Loris tardigradus ).

33) Perret, M., 1982: Stress-effects in Microcebus murinus . Folia primatologica 39: 63-114.

34) Unpublished observations of cooperating breeders.

35) Dieterle, P., 1976: Diät bei Zuckerkrankheit. K. Thienemanns Verlag, Stuttgart.

36) Cohen, A. M.; Teitelbaum, A.; Rosenman, E., 1977: Diabetes induced by a high fructose diet. Metabolism XXVI (1): 17-24.

37) Benirschke, K.,; Miller, C.; Ippen, R.; Heldstab, A., 1985: The pathology of prosimians, especially lemurs. Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 30: 167-208.

38) Liz´ko, N. N., 1989: New experimental models in microbial ecology. Antibiotiki i Khimiotherapiya 34 (6): 443-448. (Language: Russian.

39) Bennett, B. T.; Cuasay, L.; Welsh, T. J.; Beluhan, F. Z.; Schofield, L., 1980: Acute gastric dilatation in monkeys, a microbiologic study of gastric contents, blood and feed. Laboratory Animal Science 30 (2, Part 1): 241-244.

40) Dzhikidze, Z. K.; Shaginyan, S. A.; Pospelova, V. V.; Rakhimova, N. G.; Khaleneva, M. P.; Shreder, G., 1986: The use of monkeys as models for evaluating the efficacy of microbial biopreparations in diseases associated with dysbacteriosis. Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk USSR, 0 (3): 74-77. (Language: Russian).

41) Perret, M., 1982: Stress-effects in Microcebus murinus . Folia primatologica 39: 63-114.

42) Zwirner, F., 1986: Tierernährungslehre. Pp. 161-174 in: Berger, G.; Bürger, M.; Elze, K.; Eulenberger, K.; Fischer, W.; Gensch, W.; Krische, G.; Müller, P.; Petzold, H.-G.; Witstruk, K.-H., 1986: Zootierhaltung. Bd. 1: Grundlagen. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Thun.

43) Krische, G.: Futtermittelkunde. Pp. 174-225 in: Berger, G.; Bürger, M.; Elze, K.; Eulenberger, K.; Fischer, W.; Gensch, W.; Krische, G.; Müller, P.; Petzold, H.-G.; Witstruk, K.-H., 1986: Zootierhaltung. Bd. 1: Grundlagen. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Thun.

44) Berger, G.: Fütterungstechnik. Pp. 225-249 in: Berger, G.; Bürger, M.; Elze, K.; Eulenberger, K.; Fischer, W.; Gensch, W.; Krische, G.; Müller, P.; Petzold, H.-G.; Witstruk, K.-H., 1986: Zootierhaltung. Bd. 1: Grundlagen. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Thun.

45) Elze, K.; Eulenberger, K.: Grundlagen der Hygiene und Krankheiten. Pp. 250-324 in: Berger, G.; Bürger, M.; Elze, K.; Eulenberger, K.; Fischer, W.; Gensch, W.; Krische, G.; Müller, P.; Petzold, H.-G.; Witstruk, K.-H., 1986: Zootierhaltung. Bd. 1: Grundlagen. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Thun.

46) Cowgill, U. M.; States, S. J., 1981: Lactose intolerance in Perodicticus: a case study. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 20 (3): 5-8.

47) Ein Ozean von Hormonen. Der Spiegel 20, 1994: 224-226.

48) Miyake, S.; Ikeda, A.; Ohta, S.; Matsumoto, S., 1991: Three-dimensional analysis of the peculiar arterial patterns of the extremities in Lorisidae: the rete mirabile. Pp. 569-570 in: Primatology today, A. Ehara (ed.), Elsevier Science Publishers, B. V., Amsterdam.

49) Suckling, J. A.; Suckling, E. E.; Walker, A., 1969: Suggested function of the vascular bundles in the limbs of Perodicticus Potto. Nature 221: 379-380.

50) Müller, E. F., 1975: Temperature regulation in the slow loris. Naturwissenschaften 62: 140-141.

51) Montagna, W. and Ellis, R. A., 1960: The skin of primates II: the skin of the slender loris. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 18: 19-43.

52) Eisentraut, M., 1961: Beobachtungen über den Wärmehaushalt bei Halbaffen. Biol. Zbl. 80: 319-325. (Language: German).

53) Trollope, J., 1977: A preliminary survey of behavioral stereotypes in captive primates. Laboratory Animals (London) 11 (3): 195-196.

54) Mitchell, G., 1970: Abnormal behavior in primates. Pp. 195-249 in: Primate behavior, Developments in Field and Laboratory Research, Vol. 1, Rosenblum, L. A. (ed.), Academic Press, New York.

55) Poole, T. B., 1988: Normal and abnormal behaviour in captive primates. Primate Report 22: 3-12.

56) Erwin, J.; Deni, R., 1979: Strangers in a strange land: abnormal behaviors or abnormal environments? Pp. 1-28 in: Captivity and Behavior, Erwin, J.; Maple, T. L.; Mitchell, G. (eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

57) Peirce, M. A., 1975: Ectoparasites from East African vertebrates. East African Wildlife Journal 13 (2): 153-156.

58) Spelman, L. H.; Osborn, K. G.; Anderson, M. P., 1989: Pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in lemurs: role of dietary iron, tannin and ascorbic acid. Zoo Biology 8: 239-251.

59) Plesker, R.; Schulze, H., in preparation: Poycystic nephropathy in slender lorises (Loris tardigradus).

60) Plesker, R.; Schulze, H., in preparation: Necropsy findings in slender lorises (Loris tardigradus).

61) Sutherland-Smith, M.; Stalis, I.: Review of loris clinical information and pathology data from the San Diego Zoo: 1982 - 1995. In: Fitch-Snyder, H.;Fitch-Snyder, H.; Schulze, H.; Larsson, L. C. et al. , 2001: Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae ( Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.

62) Nicoll, W., 1927 (quoted in 17 = Fernando 1933): A reference list of trematode parasites of man and the primates. Parasitology Vol. 19.

63) Dr. R. Plesker, Paul-Ehrlich Institut, Germany, pers. comm.

64) Prof. Krüger, Tierärztliche Hochschule Leipzig, Germany, pers. comm.

65) Stetter, M. D.; Worley, M. B.; Ruiz, B., 1995: Herpesvirus-associated malignant lymphoma in a slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). J. Zoo Anim. Med. 26 (1): 155-160.

66) Still, J., 1905: Notes: On the loris in captivity. Spolia Zeylanica 3: 155-157.

67) Goonan, pers. comm.

68) Muthusamy, R.; Krishnamurti, A.; Anguli, V. C., 1980: Hemogram of slender loris (Loris tardigradus): a preliminary communication. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, Allahabad.

69) Altman, P. L.; Dittmer, D., 1961: Biological handbooks: Blood and other body fluids. Federation of American Societies for Experimantal Biology, Washington, D. C.

70) Whittow, G. C.; Lim, B. L.; Rand, D., 1977: Body temperature and oxygen consumption of two Malaysian prosimians. Primates 18 (2): 471-474.

71) Stöhr, W., 1988: Longterm heartrate telemetry in small mammals: a comprehensive approach as a prerequisite for valid results. Physiology and Behaviour 43: 567-576.

72) Takahashi, K.; Arakawa, H (eds.), 1981: Climates of southern and western Asia. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

73) Mani, M. S., 1974: Ecology and biogeography in India. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

74) Werner, W. L., 1984: Die Höhen- und Nebelwälder auf der Insel Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt 46. Steiner, Wiesbaden.

75) Boettcher-Law, L.: Habitat design. In: Fitch-Snyder, H. ;Fitch-Snyder, H.; Schulze, H.; Larsson, L. C. et al. (preliminary edition published in 1999, update in press): Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae (Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.

76) Alterman, L., 1995: Toxins and toothcombs: potential allospecific chemical defense in Nycticebus and Perodicticus. Pp. 413-424 in: Creatures of the Dark, Alterman, L.; Doyle, G.; Izard, M. K. (eds.), Plenum Press, New York..

77) Alterman, L.; Hale, M. E., 1991: Comparison of toxins from brachial gland exudates from Nycticebus coucang and N. pygmaeus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Sup. 12: 43.

78) Wilde, H., 1972: Anaphylactic shock following bite by a 'slow loris', Nycticebus coucang. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., Sep; 21 (2): 592-594.

79) Carey, D. E.; Carey, E. E., 1967: Calcium deprivation and osteomalacia in a slender loris, Loris tardigradus (Linnaeus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63: 428-429.

80) Wiens, F., 1995: Verhaltensbeobachtungen am Plumplori, Nycticebus coucang (Primates, Lorisidae) im Freiland. Diplomarbeit im Fachbereich Biologie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main. (Language: German).

81) Pollock, J. I., 1986: The management of prosimians in captivity for conservation and research. Pp. 269-288 in: Benirschke, K. (ed.): Primates. The road to self-sustaining populations. Springer, New York.

82) David, R., 1974: RO 5-2807 BIO (Valium) as a tranquilizer in zoo animals. International Zoo Yearbook 14: 270-273.

83) Ryder, R. D., 1978: Postscript: towards humane methods of identification. Pp. 229-234 in: Stonehouse, B. (ed.): Animal marking: recognition marking of animals in research. University Park Press, Baltimore. 224 pp.

84) Pferdetransport - Bei klarem Verstand.. 1997, no author mentioned. Cavallo, April 1997: 45. (Language: German).

85) Streicher, U., 2000-2004: unpublished data from work as a veterinarian at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam, including data from:
      Streicher, U., thesis in preparation.

86) Groves, C. P., 1971: Systematics of the Genus Nycticebus . Pp. 44 - 53 in: Proc. 3rd int. Congr. Primat., Zürich 1970, vol. 1.

87) Zhang, Y.-p.; Chen, Z.-p.; Shi, L.-m., 1993: Phylogeny of the slow lorises (genus Nycticebus): an approach using mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis. Int. J. Primatol. 14 (1): 167-175.

88) Nowak, R. M.; Paradiso, J. L. (eds.), 1983: Walker's Mammals of the World, Vol. 1., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

89) Rowe, N. (ed.), 1996: The pictorial guide of living primates. Pogonias Press, New York.

99) Schulze, H., 1998: Developing a husbandry manual to facilitate the distribution and presentation of information: with special reference to slender loris Loris tardigradus nordicus at Ruhr-University, Bochum. International Zoo Yearbook 36: 34-48.

99) Nekaris, K. I. Anna, pers. comm., including data by Singh and Udhayan 1998, pers. obs.

101) Singh, M.; Lindburg, D. G.; Udhayan, A.; Anand Kumar, M.; Kumara, H. N., 1999: Status survey of slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. Oryx 33 (1): 31-37. ISSN: 0030-6053.

102) Ryley, K. V., 1913: Bombay Natural History´s Society´s mammal survey of India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XXII, p. 283-295. (Pp. 285-287 and figure: Loris lydekkerianus, Cabr., The Mysore Slender Loris).

103) Osman Hill, W. C., 1942: The slender loris of the Horton Plains, Ceylon, Loris tardigradus nycticeboides subsp. nov.. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 43: 73-78.

104) Cowgill, U. M.; Zeman, L. B., 1980: Life span in captive nocturnal prosimians (Perodicticus potto) with reproduction and mortality records. Primates 21 (3): 437-439.

105) Howarth, J. W., 2001: Fieldwork and the risks from animal bites. http://www.psgb.org/PrimateEye/63.AnimalBiteRisks.html . In the website of Primate Eye, the journal of the British Primatological Society, http://www.psgb.org/, seen: 23 June 2001.

106) Weber, P., 2000: Rabies situation in the world. In the rabies website of the Institut Louis Pasteur. http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/rage/OLD/cont.html . Seen: 23 June 2001.

107) Recommendations from a discussion about loss of hair and dry skin in primates, via Alloprimate mailing list, 2001. Contributors (full names partly not known): Lisa, Linda (Mindys Memory primate Sanctuary), Jen Feuerstein, Debby, Barbara Healy (Annabelle's Home Primate Sanctuary).

108) Information (pers. comm.) from private loris keepers.

109) Truong quang Tam, 2001 ff, pers. comm. Institute for Tropical Biology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

110) Wehner, J.: MedizInfo (medicinal information website, German): Anaphylaktischer Schock. http://www.medizinfo.de/hautundhaar/allergie/schock.htm. Seen 9 December 2003.

111) Strassmann, W., undated: Vipera berus berus - 0.1. Kreuzotter. [Page about adders / common vipers]. http://www.reptiles.de/Vipera%20berus%20berus.htm. In: Reptilica shop. Seen 28 February 2004. (German)


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