Measures necessary for protection of humans
with lorises and pottos (keepers, field researchers,
|Dentition of a slender loris. Lorises have powerful jaw muscles and teeth with sharp edges, and since they are shy, excitable animals, unforeseen bites are always possible. Lorises should not be kept as domestic pets, particularly in families with children! In zoos, handling should be done by skilled animal keepers wearing gloves or, less stressful, by training and use of cage traps instead of seizing the animals - after taming, lorises soon learn to enter such a cage for a reward.|
|Loris bites are painful and often heal slowly because of bacterial flora on the teeth; severe disease and death of humans due to the effect of a poison produced in loris or potto skin glands have been reported. Photos: courtesy of Helena Fitch-Snyder.|
Anaphylactic shock: in people regularly in contact with slow lorises, saliva may repeatedly come into the body through tiny, maybe invisible wounds. If the loris keeper develops an allergy against this saliva, an allergic shock is possible (independant from the quantity of substance causing it, within seconds to minutes, in one case described lasting two hours), although this is a rare disease. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock may be: initially burning tongue and throat, a sensation of heat, red, itching skin, wheals, very low blood pressure, shock, convulsions of muscles (pain), pain in the heart and kidney region, respiratory problems (constriction of airways), heart problems, and possibly unconsciousness. Occurrence would make an immediate call for medicinal help necessary; first aid: measures against shock such as lying posture with legs a bit higher, assuring sufficient blood supply for necessary organs. Cases described: 78, 85, additional information about anaphylactic shock: 5, 110.
Some literature concerning loris toxin:
Alterman, L.; Hale, M. E., 1991: Comparison of toxins from brachial gland exudates from Nycticebus coucang and N. pygmaeus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Sup. 12: 43.
Alterman, L., 1995. Toxins and toothcombs: potential allospecific chemical defense in Nycticebus and Perodicticus. In: Creatures of the Dark, Alterman, L., Doyle, G. and Izard, M.K. eds), pp. 413¬424. New York: Plenum Press.
Hagey, L. R., Fry, B: G.; Fitch-Snyder, H., 2006: Talking Defensively: A Dual Use for the Brachial Gland Exudate of Slow and Pygmy Lorises. Pp. 253 - (274?) in: Gursky, S. and Nekaris, A., (eds): Primate anti-predator stretegies. Springer Verlag, New York, Inc.; ISBN: 0387348077.
Krane, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Weldon, P. J., 2003: "Venom" of the slow loris: sequence similarity of prosimian skin gland protein and Fel d 1 cat allergen. Naturwissenschaften 90 (2): 60-62 (in: Special Issue: Clinical Applications of Modern Imaging Technology). ISSN 0028-1042 (Paper), 1432-1904 (Online)
Wilde, H., 1972:
shock following bite by a 'slow loris', Nycticebus coucang.
Am. J. Trop.
Med. Hyg., Sep; 21 (2): 592-594.
|Loris and potto conservation database - disease / captive care||Last amendment: 18 March 2007|
|Info for field studies & wild population surveys||Reintroduction to the wild||Captive
|Diseases of lorises and pottos||Behaviour||General Info|