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Distribution of slender loris subspecies (major actual synonyms included; some taxonomic research is still necessary)

India:
Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus / L. lydekkerianus lydekkerianus
Loris tardigradus malabaricus / L. lydekkerianus malabaricus
Sri Lanka:
Loris tardigradus / L. tardigradus tardigradus (now regarded as a distinct species), and maybe other still undescribed Sri Lankan red rainforest forms
Loris tardigradus grandis / L. lydekkerianus grandis?
Loris tardigradus nycticeboides / L. lydekkerianus nycticeboides?
Loris tardigradus nordicus / L. lydekkerianus nordicus (or grandis? Synonymizing with grandis proposed on the basis of museum material, questioned because of differences in live animals)

India

Based on distribution areas described by Osman Hill (1933, 1953), on the origin of museum specimens collected between 1889 and 1929 (Jenkins, 1987), on specimen localities mentioned by other authors (see specimen list) and information by K. A. I. Nekaris (pers. comm.). Figures: redrawn from photos by Osman Hill 1933, Seth 1963 and by K. A. I. Nekaris.
Some of Osman Hill´s information about Loris distribution is apparently guesswork, based on habitat quality and distribution of sympatric simian primate species. Names of type localities are underlined.
 
 

Sri Lanka

Redrawn (changed) from Osman Hill (1953). Parts of the area regarded as grandis distribution area by Osman Hill (1953), but lying at rather low altitude with rain forest probably suitable for tardigradus, are marked as possible distribution areas of grandis or tardigradus or intermediate forms. Information from Osman Hill (1933, 1953), survey by Anna Nekaris (2001/2002) and other authors (see specimen list and references for Loris distribution maps). Figures: redrawn from photos by Osman Hill 1933, B. Meier and H. Schulze.
All areas mentioned as distribution areas by at least one author were included. Numbers of locations: see specimen list. Type localities: names underlined (no numbers). (Type locality of L. t. tardigradus unknown)

Slender loris subspecies: list of origin of described animals / specimens

General distribution

Anderson (1881, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933) mentions a specimen in the Calcutta museum which was obtained from a Burmese and was said to have come from the Shan States in Burma, but the occurrence of lorises in Burma has never been confirmed.
 

Sri Lanka

L. tardigradus, red slender loris: Distribution: "Ranging sparsely over the wet lowlands of S.W. Ceylon from Colombo in the north to about Ranna on the south coast; inland into the foothills where it intergrades, e. g., at Peradeniya, with the next race" (Osman Hill, 1953). Probably well distributed throughout the low-country wet zone, but nowhere common (Phillips, 1931). Above 300 m grades into L. t. grandis (Osman Hill, 1933, Phillips, 1935). According to Phillips (1935), in the north and south-east of its range L. t. tardigradus probably meets and intergrades into L. t. nordicus

During a survey in 2001, nearly all of the areas within an hour's drive of Colombo and up and down the wet western coast in areas such as Kesbewa, Matugama and Bandaragama where prior to 1933 lorises had been found (Hill 1933) were found deforested, remaining populations of this subspecies clinging to small isolated patches (Nekaris, Jayewardene, in preparation, 2001 / 2002)

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: unknown
1 Colombo, 060 56I N 790 51I E, 0-6 m 1903, 1937 + ? (Osman Hill, 1933, Jenkins, 1987)
2 Polgahawela, 070 20I N 800 19I E,    (1924) (Jenkins, 1987)
  (Phillips, 1924: "seems to be found more often in parts of the Kelami valley and around Polgahawela than anywhere else")
3 Matugama  30 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933, Phillips, 1935)
4 Henaratgoda (several specimens)   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
5 Kitulgala 210 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933, Phillips, 1935)
6 Wellawatta 270 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
7 Nugegoda 15 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
8 Kesbewa   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933, Phillips, 1935)
9 Gampaha 15 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
10 Madampe 120 m Prior to 1935 (Phillips, 1935)
11 Bandaragama   Prior to 1935 (Phillips, 1935)
11 Bandaragama   1960 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
11 Gonapola   1960 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
47 Maharagama   1960 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
53 Maimbulakanda Nature Reserve, Western Province, Gampaha District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Low country intermediate zone; intermonsoon forest. On one transect (total length 3.5 km), 3 animals were detected
54 (Ruhuna University, Faculty of Agriculture Gardens, Southern Province, Matara District: no lorises found)    2001 no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Rainforest; low country wet zone. On one transect (total length 2.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
55 (Oliyagankele Forest Reserve, Southern Province, Matara District: no lorises found)    2001 no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Rainforest; low country wet zone. On 2 transects (total length 6 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
56 Masmulah Proposed Forest Reserve, Southern Province, Matara District    2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Rainforest; low country wet zone. High population density: on 2 transects 
(total length 0.927 km), 42 animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
Location not clear or not found on the map:
  Rayigama Korale (W. P.)   Prior to 1935 (Phillips, 1935)
  Bulangoda? (Jenkins, 1987); = Bulatgangoda?, 070 07I N 800 02I E     (Jenkins, 1987)
  (= Balangoda? See below: Intermediate types L. t. tardigradus/L. t. grandis)
  Cotta? (= Kotte = Sri Jayawardanapura near Colombo?) (Osman Hill, 1933)

 

L. l. nordicus: synonym of L. t. grandis? Museum specimens indistinguishable, but photos of live specimens look distinct, and an adaptation to different habitat types seems likely, so the two forms are treated separately here until further taxonomic research is finished.
Distribution: Lowland dry zone of north and east Ceylon, including the Jaffna peninsula (Osman Hill, 1953). Distribution likely to prove "almost identical with that of the Ceylonese race of ..... Pithecus entellus thersites" (Osman Hill, 1933).
 

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Talawa, North Central Province, 080 13I N 800 21I E
    13 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
  Dry lowland zone including the Jaffna peninsula   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
12 Polonnaruwa   1970, 1980 (Petter + Hladik, 1970; Hladik + Petter, 1970; 
12 b     1980 Meier, 1989)
12 c  Polonnaruwa, Smithsonian Primate Research Camp, North Central Province, Polonnaruwa District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone. High population density: on one transect (total length 3.56 km) 115 animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. 
13 Jaffna 4 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
14 Sigiriya (C.-P.) 200 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
15 Kekirawa (N.-C.-P.) 120 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
16 Tammanewa 30 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931; Mayor, 
quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
17 Mannar (N.-W.-P.) 4 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
18 Anuradhapura (N.-C.-P.), 080 21I N 800 23I E 87 m 1913 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933, Jenkins, 1987)
18 b  Anuradhapura town, North Central Province, Anuradhapura District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone. On one transect (total length 12 km) 4 animals were detected
19a Wilpattu National Park:  < 152 m 1972 (Eisenberg, Lockhart, 1972)
  "distributed throughout Wilpattu" , but local rangers said that they were very rare   (B. Meier, pers. comm.)
19b Wilpattu   1984 (Verner-Carlsson, pers. comm.)
20 Chavakachheri, 090 39I N 800 09I E   1933 (Jenkins, 1987)
21 Point Pedro, 090 50I N 800 14I E     (Jenkins, 1987)
22 Uva (Monaragala), 
070 09I N 810 07I E
<150 m 1939 (Jenkins, 1987)
  ? (Lowland, not within estimated distribution area of L. l. nordicus; oral reports indicate that Loris is common around Monaragala are mentioned by Osman Hill (1933), but without information of the subspecies)
43 Cheddikulam     (Osman Hill, 1953)
  (Figure of a skeleton of a L. t. nordicus from Cheddikulam; no further information)
46 Habarana, North Central Province, dry zone   1965 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
49 Mihintale Sanctuary, North Central Province, Anuradhapura District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone. On two transects (total length 1.3 km) 4 animals were detected
50 Ritigala Strict Natural Reserve, North Central Province, Anuradhapura District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone; monsoon forest & grassland (1528.1 ha). On two transects (total length 6 km), 3 animals were detected
51 Minneriya-Giritale Sanctuary, North Central Province, Polonnaruwa District   2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone; monsoon forest & grassland (7529.1 ha). 
On 5 transects (total length 2, 4 km), 12 animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
Location not clear or not found on the map:
23 Wilachchiya (North-Central-Province)  Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
  (= ?) Willichia (North Central Province) ? 1914 (Jenkins, 1987)
48 NachchaduwaTank and Turuwila Tank, North Central Province, Anuradhapura Dist. (3.500.7 ha).   2001 no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Northern low country dry zone. On two transects (total length 29.2 km) no lorises were detected. 

 

L. t. grandis: Distribution: "hills of the Central Province at 900 m average altitude. Uncommon and sparsely distributed throughout its range (Osman Hill, Phillips, 1932), typical specimens only in the type locality, Gammaduwa and neigbourhood (Phillips 1935). Intergrades with tardigradus at lower altitudes but not known to meet range of nycticeboides" (Osman Hill, 1953) because no lorises have been found at altitudes between 1036 m and 1829 m.
During a survey in 2001, in the central hill zone around Ratnapura, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, Kandian home gardens, and Hapugestenna Tea Estate, local people, including elderly tea estate workers, reported having never seen lorises in the area, though they had been reported from there prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933) and some vague references that they live in the jungle (i.e. Peak Wilderness Sanctuary) were made. Of all locales visited, this area seems most doubtful to yield lorises (Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002).

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Mousakande, Gammaduwa, 
  070 34I N 800 43I E 671-
1036 m
Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Jenkins, 1987)
  (According to Phillips (1931), typical specimens of L. t. grandis had only been obtained from the type locality whereas in lower parts of the hills specimens intergrade with other subspecies)
24 D´Udawattakele (forest reserve near Kandy)   1969-1970 (Petter + Hladik, 1970)
25 Gammaduwa District   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
26 Namunucula (village or mountain  329 m   (Jenkins, 1987)
  with the same name?), Tonacombe Estate, 060 53I N 810 07I E
27 Badulla District (?)   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Phillips, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933, in the description of L. t. grandis: large form known in the Badulla district)
Location not clear or not found on the map:
28 Opalgalla (?)   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Osman Hill, Phillips, 1932: specimen resembling a L. l. tardigradus female in general color, but definitely diagnosed as L. l. grandis by size, character of fur, well-clothed hands and facial appearance)
29 Near Bandarawela (?)   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Phillips, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933, in the description of L. l. grandis: large form known near Bandarawela)
44 a Digane (= Digana), Kandy Dist., Central Province 1600´ (530 m) 1966 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
44 b (Uda-Watta Kele Sanctuary, Central Province, Kandy District (104 ha):    2001 Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Central hill intermediate zone; rainforest. On 1 transect (total length 1,2 km), 4 animals (2 lorises, 2 calls) were detected. Lorises found on fringe of sanctuary
44 c (Kandian Home Gardens, Central Province, Kandy District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Central hill intermediate zone; home gardens. On 1 transect (total length 2.3 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
45 Pindeniya 2000´ (667 m) 1961 Specimen in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; collected by E. C. Fernando. Data sent by Anna Nekaris
57 (Peak Wilderness (Samanala) Sanctuary, Sabaragamuwa Province, Ratnapura District (22379.9 ha): no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Central hill intermediate zone; montane forest. On 2 transects (total length 2.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. Local people, including elderly tea estate workers, reported having never seen lorises in the area. 
58 (Hapugestenna Tea Estate, Sabaragamuwa Province, Ratnapura District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Central hill intermediate zone; montane forest/ home gardens/ tea plants and associated introduced tree (rubber trees and eucalyptus). On 4 transects (total length 1.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. Local people, including elderly tea estate workers, reported having never seen lorises in the area. 
59 (Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa Province, Ratnapura District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Central hill intermediate zone; home gardens. On 2 transects (total length 1.25 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. Local people, including elderly workers at hotels and restaurants, reported having never seen lorises in the area and did not believe they occurred there earlier. 

 

(L. l. grandis? Subspecies not sure)
 

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
30 Badalkumbura, near Nakkala, Uva Province, 060 54I N 810 14I E, 152 m 1955 (Jenkins, 1987)
31 Moneragala District, East Ceylon, 070 06I N 800 38I E (?)     (Jenkins, 1987)

 

L. l. nycticeboides: Distribution: known only from the type locality (Osman Hill, 1953). Restricted to the montane rain and mist forests growing at an altitude of more than 1500 m in Sri Lanka (Werner, 1984).

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Horton Plains, 
060 48I N 800 48I E
Regarded as rare (Osman Hill, 1942). 
1829 m (0,1), 2134 m (1,0) 1938 (Osman Hill, 1942, Jenkins, 1987)
  Horton Plains, 
060 48I N 800 48I E
  1982 ? (R. Dmoch, pers. comm.)
  Horton Plains, 
060 48I N 800 48I E
  2001: no lorises found  Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Horton Plains,Ohiya Road, 060 48I 415 N, 800 50I 396 E; and possibly Pattipola Road: 060 48I 114 N, 800 50I 396 E 2135 m; 
possibly 2152 m
2002 Nekaris, 2003
  1937: Type and paratype caught on the estate of Mr. Tutein-Nolthenius near the Horton Plains “at a height between 5,000 ft. and 6,000 ft” (Nicholls 1939); holotype in the BMNH labelled: Below Horton Plains, 060 48I N, 800 48I E, 6000 ft., May 1938; paratype labelled: Horton Plains, 060 48I N, 800 48I E, 7000 ft. (Jenkins 1987). Labelling may have been done after death of the animals in captivity, years after capture, based on information by Nicholls, not by the collector himself, so the exactness of information may be limited.
In 1982, rangers said that slender lorises still occur on the Horton Plains where temperature may fall below 00C (R. Dmoch, pers. comm.). During a survey in 2001, rangers and researchers who have worked in the park for years said they have never seen or heard any evidence of lorises here (Nekaris, Jayewardene, 2003). Vijitha Perera later also did not see any lorises there. 
2002: during a 60 km survey, on Ohiya Road, at an altitude of 2135 m, one loris was observed (Nekaris, 2003). At Pattipola Road, 2152 m, one characteristic loris eyeshine, probably another loris, was seen. Probably very rare (Nekaris, 2003). 

Intermediate types L. tardigradus/L. l. nordicus?

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
52 (Udawalawe National Park, (Sabaragamuwa /Uva Province, Monaragala District (30821.0 ha): no lorises found).    2001: no lorises found  Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Intermediate Zone; intermonsoon forest. Possibly intermediate L. tardigradus / L. l. nordicus expected, but on 2 transects (total length 28,5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected; local wildlife officials said that had heard the call of the loris within the month prior to the survey - confirmation necessary. 

 

Intermediate types L. tardigradus/L. l. grandis

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
32 Peradeniya, 070 15I N 800 36I E 469 m Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Jenkins, 1987: specimen labelled as L. t. tardigradus)  
33 Balangoda 533 m Prior to 1931 (Phillips, 1931, Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Osman Hill, 1933: intermediate size; facial aspects of L. l. grandis with white throat and cheeks, upper parts dull fawn with little frosting,)

 

(Intermediate type L. l. nordicus/L. l. grandis?)

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
34 Elahera-Tal, north of Gammaduwa   Prior to 1931 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Osman Hill, 1933: the specimen should be intermediate between L. l. nordicus and L. l. grandis, but it is almost identical with the tardigradus/grandis-specimen from Balangoda)

 

(L. tardigradus or L. l. nordicus?)

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
35 Chilaw: red specimen described by Tennent   Prior to 1861 (Osman Hill + Phillips, 1932)
  "belonging to the usual red variety" (L. tardigradus or possibly an intermediate form between L. l. nordicus and L. tardigradus?). According to Osman Hill and Phillips (1932), the specimen might also have been a juvenile L. l. nordicus with the reddish color of immature animals.

 

Sri Lanka; no information about subspecies given:

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
1a near Colombo, 060 56I N 790 51I E   1879 (Jenkins, 1987)
1b Colombo, 060 56I N 790 51I E   1906 (Jenkins, 1987)
36 Batticaloa:"said to be common"     (Osman Hill, 1933)
  In Osman Hill, 1953, the whole area is regarded as free of lorises. Meier, Nieschalk, unpublished: no lorises found during an unsystematic search in 1979)
37 Monaragala ("common"), possibly L. t. nordicus   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Meier, Nieschalk, unpublished: no lorises found during an unsystematic search in 1979)
38 Wellassa district   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
39 Tamankaduwa district   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
40 Bintenne district   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
41 Balangoda (see also no. 33) 533 m Prior to 1924 (Phillips, 1924)
42 Galle   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
66 Kanneliya rain forest, north east part of Galle District / Udugama-Hiniduma area (about 6000 ha).    2002 (Wasantha Liyange, pers. comm. to Anna Nekaris, 2002)
  Population discovered, not yet studied
60 (Wellawaya and surrounding forest patches, Uwa Province, Monaragala District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern dry zone; monsoon forest and grassland. On 2 transects (total length 31.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. Local villagers near Wellawaya, however, said they had seen Loris in and around this town. 
61 (Wadinahela Tank and surrounding forest, Uwa Province, Monaragala District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern dry zone; monsoon forest and grassland. On 2 transects (total length 22.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
62 (Yala (Ruhuna) National Park, Southern Province, Monaragala District (103882.9 ha): no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern Dry Zone; monsoon scrub jungle. On 2 transects (total length 115.4 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected. Loris is reported to be found in Yala National Park, and presence of Loris was found in Yala guide books and reported by several forest rangers. But during the survey in 2001, all persons asked reported seeing no lorises there for the last two years. People also said that they only occur on the Kataragama side).
63 (Bundala Sanctuary, Southern Province, Monaragala District (6216.0 ha): no lorises found)   2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern Dry Zone; monsoon scrub jungle. On 2 transects (total length 47.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
64 (Kataragama Town and forest patches, Uva Province, Monaragala District (837.7 ha): no lorises found)   2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern Dry Zone; monsoon scrub jungle. On 2 transects (total length 86 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected
65 (Nimalawa Sanctuary, Southern Province, Monaragala District: no lorises found)    2001: no lorises found Nekaris, Jayewardene, in press (2001/2002)
  Southeastern Dry Zone; monsoon scrub jungleOn 2 transects (total length 36.5 km), no animals (or eyeshine, calls) were detected

 

India

Osman Hill, 1933, 1953: slender lorises probably occurring at the west coast north up to theTapti river; east coast: "distribution ...... possibly nearly ...... the same as that of ..... Macaca radiata, i.e. covering the whole of South India as far north as the Godavari river" (Osman Hill, 1933).

L. l. lydekkerianus: General distribution: south and east India. Precise range to north unknown (Osman Hill, 1953). "It is not known whether it reaches the east coast or not" (Osman Hill, 1933). Range ending at the southern and western slopes of Sirumalai (Singh et al., 1999). Regarded as a dry zone form (Osman Hill, 1933), but, according to Devaraj Sarkar (1981), also occurring in moist evergreen forest. Specimens have been found occurring at altitudes of 2000 und 3000 ft = 610, 910 m (Shortridge; Elliott, 1913; quoted by Osman Hill, 1933) and 4700 ft = 1430 m (Kinloch 1898, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933).

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Madras (Osman Hill, 1933)   Prior to1933?,  (Osman Hill, 1933), 
      1962 (Seth, 1963)
  Osman Hill (1933) mentioned that the type specimen might have been not from Madras, but brought there for sale because no lorises have been recorded from there "in recent times". But in 1962, several L. t. lydekkerianus were caught in the vicinity of Madras (Seth, 1963).
  Coromandel region of south India    Prior to 1935 (Osman Hill, 1933, 1953)
  Eastern Ghats (precise range to north unknown:    Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
  Chettiri range (Chittiri hills), Salem district, Eastern Ghats, 110 50I N 780 29I E,  610 m 1912, 1929 (Jenkins, 1987)
  Western Ghats    (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
  In Karnataka state the distribution of Loris seems to be limited   1996 (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
2a Mysore, Mysore plateau and attendant ranges:     (Osman Hill, 1953)
2b "Mysore": said to be common"   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
3a Kolar town, East Mysore, 130 08I N 780 08I E,  849-1227 m   (Jenkins, 1987)
3b Kolar district: "evident abundance"   (1913) (Ryley, 1913)
  (Shortridge, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933: Loris "said to be very common" in the Kolar district)
3c Kolar district   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
4 Malur, Kolar District, Mysore, 130 20I N 780 10IE   1912 (Osman Hill, 1933; Jenkins, 1987)
5 Nandedroog, (Nandidrug,  910 m   (Osman Hill, 1933, Jenkins, 1987)
  Nundidroog), N.-W. Kolar District, East Mysore130 22I N 770 42I E
6 - 8 Area close to L. t. malabaricus distribution area, the habitat may partly be suitable for L. t. malabaricus; see also below, under subspecies, not clearly determined. 
6 Nilgiris: "said to be common"   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933)
7 Bidigiriranjans (in the Nilgiris)   Prior to 1933 (Osman Hill, 1933, 1953)
8 Kotagiri (in the Nilgiris) 1430 m Prior to 1898 (Kinloch, 1898, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
9 Bangalore, 120 59I N 770 35I E 950 m 1919
1959-(1965), 
(1980), (1984)
(Osman Hill, 1933; Ramaswami, Anand Kumar, 1962; Swayam-prabha + Kadam, 1980; Sarma + Kadam, 1984, Manjula, 1984)
  (apparently abundant; numerous animals caught and killed for research in the past 30 years). 
Devaraj Sarkar (1981): L. t. lydekkerianus occurring in the Bangalore district..
Jenkins (1987): L. t. lydekkerianus? Subspecies of specimen in question.
10 Tumkur District   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
27 Eastern part of Dindigul District: Ayyalur, Sirumalai, Nattam and Alagar Hills forest ranges, Ayyalur Interface Forestry Division. Area roughly between 100 04I - 100 40I N and 770 54I - 780 17I E Search in 250-1300 m; most sightings at 300-500 m, only one above 1000 m (1996) (K. A. I. Nekaris, pers. comm.; 
Nekaris 2000; 
Singh et al., 1999)
  Loris field study and surveys (Nekaris, 2000; Singh et al. 1999; Radhakrishna 2000). In the Dindigul forests lorises in highest densities in Carnatic Umbrella Thorn and open Euphorbia scrub forests (32 km covered; 3.6 animals per km) and in crop lands near the forests (40 km covered; 2.8 animals per km). Lower densities in crop land away from forests (159 km covered; 0.4 animals per km) and in Southern Mixed Deciduous Forest (28 km covered; 0.6 animals per km). No animals found in dense thorn forest in spite of fairly good vision from hill slopes (21 km covered). Average density (280 km monitored, 313 sightings): 1.1 animals per km. Evaluation of prospects for establishing a slender loris sanctuary (Singh et al., 1999)
Locations 29-35:  Search in 500-1100 m  
  Southern Andhra Pradesh, area roughly between 780 - 800 N and 120 05I - 140 05I E. During surveys by Singh et al. (2000), lorises were found on reserved forest, wildlife sanctuaries and national park area; a total of 98 animals were found on 734 km covered (average density observed: 0.13 animals per km covered)
29 Near Tirupati / Renigunta ("numerous lorises")   (1996) (K. A. I. Nekaris, pers. comm.)
29 Tirupati; Chamala; Balapalli (Tirupati Division); Bakrapet, Division: Chittor (East)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
30 Sri Kalahasti; Puttur; K. Nagaram, Division: Chittor (East)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
31 Sathivedu Division: Chittor (East)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
32 Chitvel; Kodur, Division: Rajampet; Venkatagiri; Rapur, Division: Nellore   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
33 Punganur; Madnapalli, Division: Chittor (West)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
34 Palamaneru, Division: Chittor (West)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
35 Kuppam, Division: Chittor (West)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
36 Udayagiri, Division: Nellore   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
(37) Vempalli; Siddavatam; Cuddapah; Raichoti; Vontimittam, Division: Cuddapah: no lorises found (189 km covered)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
(38) Atmakur, Division: Nellore: no lorises found (49 km covered)   (Prior to 2000) (Singh et al., 2000)
40 Sriharikota Island, coastal region of southern Andhra Pradesh, 130 45I N 800 20I E   (1993) (Rao 1994, literature contributed by A. Nekaris)
  Dark grey to earty brown loris found sleeping in dense Securinega leucopus and Ziziphus mauritiana bushes, 1.5 - 2 m above ground. In addition, loris sighting at the forest nursery at Keepakamin the western region of the island reported. Very few other records of lorises occurring in this area. 
42 Sevapur, Karur District, Tamil Nadu   (1996; 2001/2002 ) (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
  Several loris sightings during the course of one night walk (survey). Alexander Amirtham, who works at Inba Seva Sangam (a medicinal herb garden and ashram in Sevapur), still saw lorises here in 2001/2002.
Location not clear or not found on the map:
  (Malur, Kolar District, East Mysore, 130 44I N 750 20I E ?)
Coordinates wrong? Not within Kolar District.
  1912 (Jenkins, 1987)

 

L. l. malabaricus: General distribution: Wet coastal tract (Malabar tract) of west India, including western Ghats and Wynaad plateau (Osman Hill, 1953). Eastern limits of distribution unknown (Osman Hill, 1933); range beginning somewhere in the relatively wet forests of the Western Ghats (Singh et al., 1999). (L. l. malabaricus is regarded as a wet zone form (Osman Hill, 1953), but, according to Devaraj Sarkar (1981), also occurs in other types of forest). According to Osman Hill (1933), in the distribution area of L. l. malabaricus specimens have been found at considerable altitudes: 2000, 3000 ft in South Coorg (museum specimens labelled L. malabaricus or L. t. gracilis) whereas the red slender loris L. tardigradus of Sri Lanka seems to be confined to the lowland.
 

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Kutta, South Coorg   1913 (Shortridge, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
11 Coorg (especially south Coorg)     (Wroughton, 1917)
12 Mercara    (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
13 Virajpet (Virarajendrapet), 
120 12I N 750 48I E,
610, 910 m 1913 (Shortridge, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
14 Huvinakadu Estate, Kutta, 
120 01I N 750 58I E
867 m 1913 (Shortridge, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
15 a Wynaad, Wynaad-Plateau (South Coorg) (= Wayanad district, Kerala)   1903 (Shortridge, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
15 b Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala   1996: no lorises found  (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
16 South Canara   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
17 North Kanara ?     (Ryley, 1913)
  "The Loris is said to be rare as far as North Kanara" (Osman Hill, 1933, mentioned in the description of L. t. malabaricus; from Shortridge´s notes in Ryley, 1913)
18a Trevandrum, Travancore State, 080 29I N 760 55I E   1889 (Jenkins, 1987)
18b Travancore: "Specimens from here are referrable to this race"   Prior to 1918 (Wroughton, 1918, quoted by Osman Hill, 1933)
  (Travancore: former British-Indian state with the capital Trevandrum, now southern Kerala)

 

? India; no reliable information about subspecies:

 
No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
19 Bombay, Sassoon 14 dock, 
180 58I N 720 50I E?
  1914 (Jenkins, 1987)
  (Museum specimen labelled "L. t. lydekkerianus"; correct?) 
(Wroughton´s "Bombay collection" of three L. t. malabaricus (skins and skulls only), used for the description of the subspecies by Osman Hill (1933), includes specimens from other localities; Osman Hill does not mention Bombay as a locality where L. t. malabaricus has been found).
20 Mangalore, 120 52I N 740 53I E   Prior to 1849 (Jenkins, 1987)
  "The record of L. t. lydekkerianus from Mangalore is apparently based on a poorly preserved specimen .... the subspecific identification of which can no longer be established"
21 West coast near Ratnagiri given as a "possible locality" for Loris     (Blanford 1888)
  (Osman Hill, 1933: Location mentioned in connection with L. t. lydekkerianus)
22 Bandipur National Park: "thickly distributed"   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
22 b Bandipur National Park, Karnataka   1996: no lorises found  (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
  During a survey in 1996 no lorises were heard, but local wildlife officials confirmed their presence, reporting that they regularly heard their whistles
23 Nagarhole National Park: "thickly distributed"   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
  Region around Nagarhole, between Wynaad-Plateau (15) and the Nilgiris (6): subspecies? Distribution area of L. t. lydekkerianus very close to that of L. t. malabaricus in this region
23 b Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka   1996: no lorises found (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
  During a survey in 1996 no lorises were heard, but local wildlife officials confirmed their presence, reporting that they regularly heard their whistles. A limited survey in the Brahmagiri Hill (Nagarhole) also yielded no sign of lorises. 
6 - 8 b Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu   1996 (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, pers. comm.)
  During a survey in 1996 only one loris was seen at Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, but local wildlife officials confirmed their presence, reporting that they regularly heard their whistle
24 Mundanthurai wildlife sanctuary, 
8° 25' - 8° 53' N; 77° 10' - 77° 35' E, 
  (1984, 1995, 1998) (Johnson, 1984; Kar Gupta, 1995; Kar Gupta, in preparation)
  Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu (single individuals, "at certain points" (Johnson, 1984)
Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Thalayani, Mundanthurai Plateau (field study areas of Kaberi Kar Gupta): 70 sightings on 86.4 km in dry deciduous forest with highest abundance in natural mixed forest (Kar Gupta 1995; Kar Gupta, in preparation). 
Location not clear or not found on the map:
25 Thittimati (= forest reserve, Mysore Plateau): "thickly distributed"   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
26 Anekadu (= forest reserve, Mysore Plateau): "thickly distributed"   (1981) (Devaraj Sarkar, 1981)
28, 39 Regions around Anaimalai Hills and Palani Hills:    No sightings known (M. Singh, 2000, pers. comm.; K. A. I. Nekaris, 2000, pers. comm.)
  Distribution area of L. t. lydekkerianus may meet that of L. t. malabaricus in this region.
28 Anaimalai Wildlife Reserve, also called Indira Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu   (1996) (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, 2001: pers. comm.)
  During a survey in 1996 only one loris was seen here in four nights of observation, maybe because of extremely dense rain forest
(39) Palani Hills: no data available (no lorises found during a visit).     (K. A. I. Nekaris, 2000, pers. comm.)
41 Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala   1996: no lorises found (Nekaris 1997; Nekaris, 2001: pers. comm.)
  During a survey in 1996 no lorises were heard in this park, but local wildlife officials confirmed their presence

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