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Distribution of Nycticebus pygmaeus and possibly existing other pygmy loris forms

N. pygmaeus
N. intermedius (proposed species)
Form of Bolikhamxay Province, Laos (proposed species, possibly corresponding to N. intermedius)

Taxonomy: forms distinguished from N. pygmaeus by some author are here included under the names / synonyms used in literature. The question of correct taxonomy is not supposed to be answered here.

Faunal barriers within the distribution area of pygmy lorises in Vietnam, according to Fooden (1996):

1) Mekong river: apparently restricts spreading of four of six non-macaque primate groups to the west.

2) Distribution of primate species and subspecies indicates that a zoogeographic barrier formerly extended across Vietnam from east to west at about 14º-17ºN, possibly due to climatic changes during glaciation.

Figures redrawn from photos by B. Meier and G. Anzenberger. Type localities underlined

Lesser slow lorises:

Alterman, Freed 1997: researchers from China and Vietnam suggest that other slow loris species or subspecies exist. Also evidence for unidentified members of the genus in osteological collections (see Schwartz and Beutel 1995)
 

List of origin of described animals / specimens
 

General distribution:

based on the distribution map in Osman Hill, 1953, and on Groves, 1971, corrected with regard to other specimen localities and maps. In Vietnam widely distributed in forest areas, but common only in semi-evergreen and secondary forest, distribution from the north of Lang Son province, 210 30I N 1060 20I E, to the south of Tay Ninh province, 110 43I N 1080 48I E (Huynh 1998). In Laos in dense evergreen forest as the primary habitat. In China in west and south Yunnan (Ji, Peng 1990, Huynh 1998)
 
 

N. pygmaeus, possibly including other unidentified forms such as N. intermedius:
 
 



No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Bali, near Nhatrang (Nha Trang); Khanh Hoa, Vietnam, 
120 15I N 1090 11I E
  1905, 
1908, 
1909
(Jenkins, 1987; Fooden 1996)
China:
1a Jinping, Yunnan (map published)   Prior to 1990 (Ji, Peng 1990)
1b Dawelshan, Yunnan (map published)   Prior to 1990 (Ji, Peng 1990)
3 Laojunshan, Yunnan (map published)   Prior to 1990 (Ji, Peng 1990)
Vietnam:
  See above, type locality      
4a Thai Nien, Lao Cai, 
220 24I N 1040 05I E
90 m 1924 (Fooden 1996)
6 Muong Nhe Nature Reserve, 220 23I N 1020 50I E:   (1995) (Huynh 1998)
  "one of the areas with highest density in Vietnam"
7 Lai Chau, 220 04I 1040 10I E
(locality name not found on maps)
150 m 1929 (Groves 1971; Fooden 1996)
8 Luc Yen, Yen Bai, 
220 05I N 1040 43I E
450 m 1964 (Fooden 1996)
9 Ha Giang Prov., 
220 46I N 1040 57I E
  (Prior to 1992) (Fooden 1996)
10 Cham Chu, Chiem Hoa District, Tuyen Quang; 220 12I N 1050 07I E   1992 (Fooden 1996, quoting Ratajsczcak et al. 1992)
11a Na Hang Nature Reserve, Tuyen Quang (Ha Tuyen) Province, 
220 14I N 1050 30I E: 
  (1995) (Huynh 1998; Nisbett, Ciochon 1993)
  "one of the areas with highest density in Vietnam"
11b Ban Bung vic., Na Hang District, Tuyen Quang, 220 20I N 1050 20I E   1989 (Fooden 1996, quoting Ratajsczcak 1989)
11c Tat Ke vic. ( = Kheo-Ting-Ta Ke area), Na Hang District, Tuyen Quang, 220 25I N 1050 25I E   1992 (Fooden 1996, quoting Ratajsczcak. et al. 1992
12 Kien Thiet vic., Yet Son District, Tuyen Quang, 
ca. 210 58I N 1050 22I E
  1992 (Fooden 1996, quoting Ratajsczcak. et al. 1992)
14 Lang Son, in the area 210 21I - 220 27I N 1060 06I 1070 22I E   1977 (Fooden 1996)
15 Thai Nien (= Thai Nguyen?), 
210 31I N 1050 55I E
90 m 1925 (Groves 1971; Jenkins 1987)
16a Chieng Khoang, Song Ma District, Son La, 210 01I N 1030 50I E   1963 (Fooden 1996)

 


No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
16b Song Ma, Son La Province,Vietnam near the laotian border, 
210 03I N 1030 45I E
    (Nisbett, Ciochon 1993)
17 Phu Yen, Son La, 210 16I N 1040 40I E     (Fooden 1996)
18a Ba Vi, Son Tay District, Ha Tay, 
210 05I N 1050 23I E
  1962 (Fooden 1996)
18b Ba Vi National Park, Ha Tay, 
210 05I N 1050 25I E
    (Fooden 1996, quoting Ratajsczcak. 1989)
18c Hoa Binh forest, 
200 49I N 1050 22I E
  1957 (Fooden 1996)
19 Bao La,, Mai Chau District, Hoa Binh, 200 40I N 1050 07I E   1972 (Fooden 1996)
20a Hoi Xuan, Quan Hoa District, Thanh Hoa, 200 22I N 1050 09I E; 
200 23I N 1050 06I E
  1930-1934 (Groves 1971; Jenkins 1987)
20b Lung Luhn / Lung Lun, Thanh Hoa, ca. 200 13I N 1050 05I E 1000 m 1930 (Fooden 1996)
21 Cuc Phuong, Ninh Binh, 
200 19I N 1050 38I E
  1963 (Fooden 1996)
22 Than Hoa (= Ten Loa), Annam Region; Thanh Hoa, 
190 48I N 1050 46I E
  1928-1929 (Fooden 1996)
23a Nghia Dan, (= Nghia Hung; Phu Qui), Nghe An, 190 19I N 1050 25I E 30 m 1928 (Fooden 1996)
23b Phu Qui, 190 16I N 1050 25I E   1928 (Groves 1971; Jenkins 1987)
24 Pu Mat Nature Reserve:    (1995) (Huynh 1998)
  "one of the areas with highest density in Vietnam"
25 Vu Quang Nature Reserve, 160 26I N 1050 33I E   (1995) (Huynh 1998)
26 Thuy Ba Ha, (? = Thy Ba), Quang Tri, ca. 170 01I N 1070 00I E   1928 (Fooden 1996)
  (Locality from map in Fooden and coordinates; name not found on maps)
27a Kon Ha Nung Nature Reserve on the Tay Nguyen Plateau:    (1995) (Huynh 1998)
  "one of the areas with highest density in Vietnam"
27b Tay Nguyen region, 
110 12I - 150 15I
1070 13I - 1090 05I E
  1984 (Fooden 1996)
28 Hué ca. 0 m 1925 (Groves 1971; Fooden 1996)
51 Bach Ma Nat. Pk.; Thua-Tien-Hué, ca. 160 12I N 1070 52I E   1990-1995 (Fooden 1996)
30 Son Tra, Mt., 
ca. 160 07I N 1080 18I E
  ca. 1990-1995 (Fooden 1996)
31 Mom Ray Nature Reserve, Kon Tum, ca. 140 27I N 1070 45I E   1990-1995 (Fooden 1996)
32 Roi Koi, 140 41I N 1070 39I E     (Fooden 1996)
33a Kontoum (Kon Tum), 
140 23I N 1080 00I E
900 m 1926 (Groves 1971; Fooden 1996)
33b Ro Koi (= Ro Coi), Sa Thay District, Kontoum (Kon Tum), 
ca. 140 41I N 1070 39I E
  1980-1981 (Fooden 1996)
33c? Kbang District (not located); Kon Tum, 130 56I - 150 14I
1070 20I - 1080 37I E
  1991 (Fooden 1996)
34 Pleiku (Play Cu), Gia Lai,
ca. 130 59I N 1080 00I E
    (Groves 1971, Fooden 1996)

 


No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
35a Kong Cha Rang-Kon Khi Kinh, 
140 26I N 1080 30I E, 
  ca. 1990 - 1995 (Fooden 1996)
  Kong Cha Rang-Nature Reserve area, 140 19I - 140 33I N 1080 24I - 1080 35I E
36 Ha Nung, Gia Lai, 140 22I N 1080 42I E   (Prior to 1995) (Fooden 1996)
37a Xa Nam, An Khe District, Gia Lai, 130 57I N 1080 30I E   1978 (Fooden 1996)
37b Song Ba, An Khe District, Gia Lai, ca. 130 57I N 1080 40I E   197 (Fooden 1996)
38 Yok Don, in the area 12-130 N 107-1080 E     (Fooden 1996)
39 Buon Ma Thuot, 
120 40I N 1080 03I E
    (Fooden 1996)
40 Nam Ca, (? = Nam Ka), Dac Lac, 
ca. 120 18I N 1080 02I E
  (Prior to 1995) (Fooden 1996)
41a Blao     (Groves 1971)
41b Bao Loc, in the area 11-120 N 107-1080 E     (Fooden 1996)
42 Cat Tien National Park, Nam Bai Cat Tien Nature Reserve, 
110 27I N 1070 19I E: 
  (1995) (Huynh 1998)
  "one of the areas with highest density in Vietnam"

 


No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
43 Trang Bom, Dong Nai, 
100 57I N 1070 01I E
  (Prior to 1970) (Fooden 1996)
44 Vicinity of Ho Chi Minh City = Saigon, ca. 10045I N 1060 40I E   1929 (Groves 1971; Fooden 1996)
Laos:
45 Phong Saly     (Groves 1971)
46 Thateng     (Groves 1971)
47 Bolovens Plateau     (Groves 1971)
48 Trade origin: south Laos west of the Mekong, close to the border to Thailand and Cambodia   Prior to 1990 (R. Lippe, pers. comm.)
49 Phou Xang He protected area;    1994 (Duckworth, 1994)
  south of Ban Khame, central Laos, 160 50I N 1060 50I E (Location, coordinates correct? Not found on the map)

 

N. intermedius (proposed species):

Proposed as a distinct species, larger than N. pygmaeus, some hair and dentition differences described. Ratajszczak (1998): differences do not warrant even subspecific differentiation; Groves (1971) regarded intermedius as adults and pygmaeus as subadults of one species. Mitochondrial DNA: mean genetic distance to N. intermedius: 0,009 (0.006 - 0.012); mean genetic distance of both to N. coucang: 0.053 (0.046 - 0.067) (Zhang, Shen, Chi 1993). Distinguished from pygmaeus by cranial, dentition features and external features such as weight difference (450-800g; pygmaeus: 300-450 g, which, according to Ratajszczak 1998 may be due to rearing conditions of captive animals offered on local markets), presence of a dorsal stripe and little curly body hair (in pygmaeus: most hair curly) (Zhang et al., 1993). In Yunnan only in tropical rain and seasonal monsoon forests, which are humid with an annual average temperature about 160C; highly seasonal breeder with estrous from middle of July to early September (Feng et al. 1993a, b). In Vietnam frequent only in semi-evergreen forest (Huynh 1998)
 



No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
Type locality: Forest of Hoa Binh, Vietnam, 210 50I N 1050 20I E
      1957 (Dao, 1960)
China:
2 Hekou, Yunnan (= Ho-k´ou?)   (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
4b Maguan, Yunnan (Ma-kuan)   (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
4c Malipo, Yunnan (= Ma-Lip´o)   (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
4d Ping-pien (= Pingbian)   (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
5 Luchun counties, 220 45I - 230 00I
1020 10I - 1040 41I E
  (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
Vietnam:
  "Northern Vietnam"   (Prior to 1993) (Feng et al., 1993a)
  Tay Bac region, North Vietnam,    1963 (Fooden 1996)
  200 19I - 220 48I N 1020 08I - 1050 52I E
  Type locality, see above: Hoa Binh      
11d Thanh Tuong, Na Hang District, Tuyen Quang, 220 19I N 1050 24I E   1965 (Fooden 1996)
13 Dong Anh Dist., Bac Thai, 
ca. 220 N 00I 1060 00I E
  1960 (Fooden 1996)

 

Form of Bolikhamxay Province, Laos (proposed species, possibly corresponding to N. intermedius):

New lesser slow loris in Bolikhamxay Province, Laos? Form discovered by Lon Alterman, Alterman and Freed 1997: ten captive, six wild individuals examined; initial suggestion: differ from others in pelage, body size and anterior dentition. Do not co-occur with N. pygmaeus, co-occur with N. coucang. May correspond to N. intermedius.
 

No. Origin Altitude Date (Source)
50 Bolikhamxay Province     (Alterman, Freed, 1997)

 

N. chinensis? Newspaper article of uncertain origin (of January / February 1998?) with a photo by SIPA Press.
 

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