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Manufactured monkey biscuits / pellet food used for nutrition of captive lorises and pottos.
With data based on official product information of manufacturers and other sources, by Helena Fitch-Snyder and Helga Schulze, some data by Bernhard Meier
Under construction


General information on the use of commercially available pellet food
Addresses where to obtain pellet food
Product information, nutrient composition

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General information on the use of commercially available pellet food
Manufactured food may be supposed to be either complete diet or supplement to normal diet, designed to provide key nutrients when used in combination with other food items. Pellet / biscuit may also be useful cleaning the teeth, preventing tartar formation when chewed.

Pellet food  must be stored in a dry, cool, well ventilated place free of pests and insects. Spoiled, insect- or mite-infested pellets should not be used any more. Insect webs or parts of insects, mouse faeces, deformed, humid, macerating, softening, crumbling pellets may indicate quality problems. Rancid, mouldy, foul or other smell may help to detect problems (Meyer et al., 1993).

Quantities fed to lorises as a supplement to other diet:
at San Diego Zoo, the following commercially available primate food is given as a supplement to other diet (see San Diego husbandry manual nutrition chapter):
for slow lorises: 3 g folivore biscuit, 2 pcs (Marion Leaf Eater®), 13 g high protein biscuit, 1 pc (Zoopreme Monkey Chow®)
For pygmy slow lorises: 3 g folivore biscuit, 2 pcs (Marion Leaf Eater®), 4 g high protein biscuit, 1/2 pc (Zoopreme Monkey Chow®)
For slender lorises: 12 g canned Zoopreme Marmoset Diet®

Feeding with pellets:
When dry pellet food is offered, water should always be available for the animals.
Pellets should usually be offered on dry surfaces; experience at Ruhr-University showed that pellets, put on a wet, for instance freshly washed surface, after drying are firmly attached and usually are left
Slender lorises not familiar with pellets needed some time until they tried pellet food, but then usually relished it (observation at Ruhr-University).
Slow lorises confiscated from illegal trade often have their teeth removed and have problems chewing hard food items. For such animals, it might be best to offer pellets softened by soaking them in water; but observations on that are still lacking.

Commercially available pellet and other food: some products, addresses and websites

In the USA; see website for dealers in other countries:

In Germany:

In Switzerland:

  • Provimi Kliba SA, from Kliba Mühlen, 4303 Kaiseraugst (Switzerland), website: http://www.kliba-nafag.ch

  • Product information, nutrient composition

    Mazuri® Primate Growth & Repro Biscuit 5MA1
    Product information from http://www.mazuri.com/5ma1.htm#Comp, modified
    Food specially formulated for a variety of primates which will benefit from a higher protein and energy diet.
    Available in biscuit size: 5/8" x 7/8" x 1 3/4" length, 25 lb net weight paper sack.

    Approximate nutrient composition:


    Protein: 24.3  % (crude protein not less than 20.0%)

    Fat: 5.9 % (crude fat not less than 5.0%).

    Crude fiber: 7.6 %; not more than 8.0% 

    Neutral detergent fiber: 16.6 % 

    Acid detergent fiber: 9.6 %.

    Ash: 5.7 % 

    Amino acids

    Arginine:1.44 % 

    Cystine: 0.34 % 

    Glycine: 0.99 % 

    Histidine: 0.61 % 

    Isoleucine: 1.28 % 

    Leucine: 2.17 % 

    Lysine: 1.36 % 

    Methionine: 0.48 % 

    Phenylalanine: 1.31 % 

    Tyrosine: 0.94 % 

    Threonine: 0.91 % 

    Tryptophan: 0.32 % 

    Valine: 1.35 % 

    Taurine: 0.14 %


    Calcium: 1.25 % 

    Phosphorus: 0.70 % 

    Phosphorus (non-phytate): 0.48 %

    Potassium: 1.02 % 

    Magnesium: 0.17 % 

    Sodium: 0.42 % 

    Chlorine: 0.33 % 

    Sulfur: 0.24 % 

    Iron: 370 ppm 

    Zinc: 150 ppm 

    Manganese: 100 ppm 

    Copper: 34 ppm 

    Iodine: 2.0 ppm 

    Selenium: 0.39 ppm 

    Cobalt: 0.66 ppm 


    Vitamin A: 20 IU/gm 

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin hydrochloride): 14 ppm 

    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): 14 ppm 

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): 17 ppm 

    Vitamin B12: 69 mcg/kg 

    Biotin: 0.42 ppm 

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): 500 ppm, stabilized (stable for 180 days from the date of manufacture which is printed on the bag)

    Vitamin D3 (added): 3.5 IU/gm 

    Vitamin E: 290 IU/kg 

    Vitamin K (as menadione): 2.5 ppm 

    Folic acid: 14 ppm 

    Choline chloride: 1,700 ppm 

    Niacin (Nicotinic acid): 110 ppm 

    Pantothenic acid: 70 ppm 

    Nitrogen-free extract (by difference): 46.5 % 

    Metabolizable energy: 2.89 kcal/g 

    Contains no sucrose which might cause dental problems; contains DentaGuard™  which helps reduce formation of dental calculi

    Pellets at present fed to the lorises of Ruhr-University Bochum:
    Ssniff Mar, 4mm, complete diet for marmosets,
    also available as meal
    Product information from http://www.ssniff.de/, 1999, modified
    by Ssniff Spezialitäten GmbH, 59494 Soest, Germany:

    Nutrient Content::


    Crude protein: 26.00 % (crude protein not less than 20.0%)

    Crude fat: 7.00 % (crude fat not less than 5.0%).

    Crude fiber: 2.50 %.

    Crude ash: 6.0 % 

    Amino acids

    Arginine: 1.80 % 

    Cystine: 0.40 % 

    Glycine: 1.10 % 

    Histidine: 0.70 % 

    Isoleucine: 1.10 % 

    Leucine: 2.00 % 

    Methionine: 0.40 % 

    Phenylalanine: 1.30 % 

    Tyrosine: 0.80 % 

    Threonine: 1.00 % 

    Tryptophan: 0.40 % 

    Valine: 1.20 % 

    Aspartic acid: 2.80 %

    Glutaminic acid: 4.90 %

    Trace elements per kg

    Calcium: 1.00 % 

    Phosphorus: 0.70 % 

    Potassium: 0.70 % 

    Magnesium: 0.20 % 

    Sodium: 0.20 % 

    Iron: 269 mg 

    Zinc: 90 mg 

    Manganese: 90 mg 

    Copper: 14 mg 

    Iodine: 2 mg 

    Selenium: 0.2 mg 

    Cobalt: 2 mg 

    Vitamins per kg

    Vitamin A: 18 000 IU

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): 18 mg

    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): 24 mg

    Vitamin B6: 18 mg

    Vitamin B12 : 100 µg

    Biotin: 500 µg

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): 4.000 mg

    Vitamin D3: 3000 IU

    Vitamin E: 120 mg

    Vitamin K3: 6 mg

    Choline: 1600 mg

    Folic acid: 7 mg

    Inositol: 60 mg

    Niacin (Nicotinic acid): 70 mg

    Pantothenic acid: 50 mg

    ME per kg: 14.9 MJ



    Mazuri® Primate Growth & Repro Biscuit 5MA1 product information website: http://www.mazuri.com/5ma1.htm#Comp. Seen 16 January 2004.

    Ssniff Spezialitäten GmbH, 59494 Soest, Germany: : http://www.ssniff.de/English/main.htm. Seen 2 February 2004.

    Meyer, H.; Bronsch, K.; Leibetseder, J., 1993: Supplemente zu Vorlesungen und Übungen in der Tierernährung. [supplements for lectures and practices in animal nutrition]. Verlag M. & H. Schaper, Hannover.   ISBN: 3-7944-0172-7.   (German)

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    Loris and potto conservation database - captive care / nutrition  Last amendment: 20 December 2004


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