Nutrition of lorises and pottos
Schulze, H. (compiler), with data by (in alphabetic order) H. Fitch-Snyder, B. Meier, K. A. I. Nekaris, K. Petry, F. Wiens et al.
Under construction; more data soon
See also online edition of the San Diego loris manual: nutrition chapter
A cautionary note: experience at Ruhr-University
from keepers showed that wrong or too abundant captive feeding
easily leads to disease (such as dysbacteriosis, kidney lesions
see below) and subsequent death with symptoms of wasting disease
of weight, malnutrition, sometimes changes of skin, hair loss or
problems). We recommend to strictly adhere to a certain daily
regarded as adequate. The information below certainly needs
Regular health control with urine dipsticks for human use is
for early recognition of problems due to inadequate diet. Any
improving this material, such as diets with which lorises have
healthy over several years, would be appreciated.
Diet of loris and potto species
Slender lorises - basic information
Captive slender loris nutrition, examples: at Ruhr University, at Brookfield Zoo, at San Diego Zoo
Nycticebus pygmaeus - basic information
Captive pygmy slow loris nutrition, examples: at Brookfield Zoo, at San Diego Zoo
Slow lorises - basic information
Captive slow loris nutrition, examples: at Brookfield Zoo, at San Diego Zoo
Arctocebus - basic information
Perodicticus - basic information
Food-related problems in captivity
Wasting disease in captivity
Treatment of wasting disease with Inulin
Other food-related health problems
Food items and food supplements: product information; see also page for nutrient content of food items.(in preparation, at present only empty page) and extra page about pellets.(under construction, preliminary)
Sorts of tree exudates:
Some addresses where to obtain food and food supplements
Review of nutrient content in food items, by Kathrin Petry: in preparation
Some literature on the effect of inulin
Milk composition, food during handrearing: see handrearing chapter
All lorisids are more or less omnivorous and in their natural habitat feed on insects and other small prey - up to the size of small reptiles and maybe birds - and various vegetable food. They may have specialized on catching insect species other sympatric mammals will refuse, as for instance hairy caterpillars, very small, badly smelling or tasting prey, which means that they tolerate, but do not prefer such rather abundant food (Hladik, Hadik 1972; Charles-Dominique 1976). Recent field studies, however, showed that slow lorises of a Malaysian study population have specialized on a high-calorie diet consisting of floral nectar and tree sap (Wiens 1995, 2002)
Hladik and Petter (1970) observed that prey is found by systematic searching of twigs and lianes with the nose close to the substrate. In captivity, the slender lorises at Ruhr-University find distant prey mainly with their eyes and by hearing it. Particularly the sound of small objects falling down attracts them immediately and causes quick pursuit. Sniffing and taste are employed for identification. Tests with various food under captive conditions showed that moving small prey is a favourite food of all lorisids. Even small living fishes, certainly no familiar lorisid prey, were taken, most probably because of their movements (Subramoniam 1957). Dead, motionless prey is often rejected (Subramoniam 1957 and observations from Ruhr-University). Among vertebrates, smaller lizards and geckos are generally relished. Newly born mice or hamsters are eaten; freshly killed chickens, mice and rats were accepted; Kinnear (1919) observed that captive L. t. lydekkerianus killed and ate two gerbils, and a slow loris caught a bat (Mackenzie 1929).
Dead birds were almost completely devoured by slender lorises, only one or two large wing feathers being left (Phillips 1931); Catching and eating of birds by slow lorises at San Diego Zoo has been observed (Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm.). Bird meat, dog-food and boiled eggs are taken by all species, but boiled meat and minced raw meat are frequently rejected (Crandall 1964; Blackwell, Menzies 1968; Kolar 1967, observation from Ruhr-University). Animal protein may also be given in the form of milk, baby formula and protein powder.
Feeding primates with vertebrate meat or baby mammals may cause some risks. Baby mice have some similarity at least to slender loris neonates who are small and initially partly naked, there might be a risk of inducing animals to cannibalism, and Montali and Bush (1999) warn that in Callitrichidae for instance feeding with baby mice may lead to infection with lymphocystic choriomeningitis virus, the cause of callithrichid hepathitis; transfer of other mammal diseases to primates might be possible. (Danger of transfer of bird diseases?)
In slender lorises, animal prey and immobile solid food are
with one or both hands with a fast and stereotyped movement which
to be a fixed action pattern; sometimes in addition the teeth are
Slender lorises immediately kill larger prey by crushing its head
the teeth; small and harmless animals are often eaten alive. For
food particles are put into the mouth, leaving hands free for
Water is lapped up with the tongue in dog-like fashion. Lorisids generally seem to drink little water. Subramoniam (1957) observed that her lorises licked up tiny dew drops from the leaves. Our animals drink water or fennel tea only occasionally. More frequent drinking occured in the cases of diabetes, before birth and in cases of severe stress. Nutritious liquids such as milk or formula are either lapped up with the tongue by slender lorises or the animal makes the typical movement of seizing solid food ans then licks the liquid off the hand.
A slow loris was only once observed drinking; another one liked to drink a cup of tea every evening (Mackenzie 1929). Sweet liquids are taken more readily than water. In a test with glucose solutions (5-40%) a slow loris preferred 20% solutions.
As the lower incisors and premolars of prosimians form a
toothcomb used for grooming their fur, some authors believed that
ability to bite off pieces of solid food is very limited. But in
the dentition is used to gnaw holes into tree bark for obtaining
Nekaris 2000, 2001 and Nekaris, Rasmussen 2003 for slender
Tan, 1994; Tan, Drake 2001 for
N. pygmaeus, Barrett 1984, Wiens
1995 and 2002 for slow lorises; Charles-Dominique 1977 and Oates
pottos), lorises can bite very hard, for instance in defence, and
slender lorises managed to eat large pieces of apple offered to
toys, but small food particles are preferred, maybe for
(typical prey-catching movement which also is an important play
Diet of loris and potto species
In the wild, according to analysis of feces and stomach contents, slender lorises are extremely insectivorous, eating mainly very small arthropods (Hladik, Hladik 1972; Hladik, Petter 1970; Petter, Hladik 1970). Feeding on fruits, leaves, young sprouts and flowers was occasionally observed (Johnson 1984).
During an 10 month study of the socioecology of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in a dry scrub jungle of Tamil Nadu, India, information on diet was systematically recorded. In 1173 hours of direct observation, 1238 feeding incidents were noted. Male and female adults, juveniles and infants were observed throughout the night or for as long as possible. The following variables were recorded: item eaten, method of capture, location while feeding, and size of substrate. With the exception of two geckos (probably Hemidactylus sp.), three seed pods (Prosophis juliflora), and gum, lorises ate almost exclusively invertebrates, including molluscs (slugs and snails) and arthropods (mainly insects). Orders of insects eaten include: Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Isoptera, Diptera, Homoptera and Odanata. Lorises almost always grabbed prey with one hand, though flying prey was caught with two hands. Gum and sometimes ants were collected with the mouth. Sleeping, cryptic and colonial insects, along with snails and slugs, were picked off branches. Insects from the undergrowth, active insects and lizards were caught by stealth. Furious urine washing proceeded the consumption of some beetles, moths and ants. Vision and scent seemed to play the most important role in prey capture. Furthermore, insects were caught from all areas of a tree, though a preference was shown for insects on terminal branches and middle branches. The results of this study suggest that L. t. lydekkerianus ranks along with tarsiers as the most faunivorous primates. In contrast to previous studies of other lorisines, it does not appear that L. t. lydekkerianus specializes in cryptic and repugnant prey, but utilizes a broad spectrum of toxic and high quality insects. Finally, the extreme orbital frontality in lorises might be an adaptation to eating insects at close range (Nekaris 2000, 2001 and Nekaris, Rasmussen 2003; http://ssl.brookes.ac.uk/nocturnalprimates/wilddiet.html).
Nutritional analysis of a stomach content sample (1.52 g) from an adult female loris found dead: per 100g: total Ash = 400mg; Calcium = 72mg; Iron = 49mg; Protein = 500mg; Fat = 1900mg.
Low basal metabolic rate possibly an adaptation to a fairly high amount of low quality food among the natural prey (Nekaris 2001).
Weight changes: in summer much more slender, in winter fat deposition (U. Streicher, pers. comm and 2003 in press)
Fecal analysis from a pygmy loris caught in Vietnam contained 98% insects and 2% plant material (Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm; Fitch-Snyder, Thanh 2002). Gummivory in the wild has been observed, apparently including stimulation of exudate flow by gouging holes into trees (see information of tree exudates below and figure; many gouges of about 1.8 - 2 cm with a depth of about 0.8 - 10 mm were found in trunks of two trees of the family Burseraceae in which pygmy lorises were observed (Tan, 1994; Tan, Drake, 2001). In captivity, at the Duke University Primate Center the characteristic gouges were found on wooden substrate (freshly cut branches of various sizes, particularly of exudate-producing trees such as red maple or sweet gum) (Tan, Drake, 2001). At San Diego Zoo lorises also produced gnaw marks on wooden substrates, and there is evidence that N. pygmaeus can detect gums embedded in wooden blocks (Tan, Drake, 2001, quoting Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm.). Gum, sap for sale: see below, addresses.
Slow lorises are more frugivorous than Loris (Crandall 1964), but also "ardent carnivores" (Tenaza and Fitch, 1984) who capture insects, small reptiles and perhaps birds. In Malaysia, during a field study a major part of the diet of observed lorises consisted of nectar, nectar producing parts of plants, plant sap and plant gum (a group of water-soluble exudates that seal wounds). 51.1 % of feeding observations were consumption of nectar / floral parts of bertam palms Eugeissona tristis. Before lapping up considerable amounts of nectar, the lorises often bit off one of the three hard woody petals of the flowers. They also gouged holes into the superficial layer of the cambium of trees or lianae by using the lower anterior teeth, lapped up the exposed saps and then quickly moved a few meters for gauging a new hole. Preferred trees were riddled with hundreds of small holes, and on thinner twigs sometimes the bark was chewed off from large areas. Solidified older gum was mostly collected by using the anterior teeth as scoops. For information about the behaviour see our enrichment page. Amounts of available gum were usually large and the lorises spent up to 10 minutes at one site, but slimy, translucient, reddish-brown masses found in 55.3% of examined faeces may have been mucilage of plant gum, indicating that gums may be incompletely digested. (See information about tree exudates). 30.2 % of feeding observations were sap consumption. 3.6 % were gum consumption. Nectar could not be traced in faeces, but 44.1 % of faeces contained flower parts indicating nectar eating; 51.1 % of fecal samples contained pieces of bark and wood, probably from gauging holes or peeling off bark (Wiens 2002).
Other food items reported were live prey, including arthropods and animals up to the size of small reptiles and birds (Wiens 1995 and 2002, Barrett 1984) and fruits (according to Wiens, 2002, in Malaysia, 70.2 % of faeces contained fruit remnants).
|Nycticebus pygmaeus gauge hole. Photo: Ulrike Streicher, Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam||Gauge marks of captive Nycticebus coucang (redrawn from a photo of branches in the collection of K.-H. Schweigert)|
In captivity slow lorises ate banana and other fruits, rice, dog-food, raw horse meat, insects, lizards, freshly killed chicken, mice, young hamsters and milk formula made of instant baby food with egg and honey and, as an addition, cod-liver oil and bone meal (Crandall 1964; Mackenzie 1929; Kolar 1967). According to Kolar (1967) lorises ate enormous quantities, for instance a whole banana, one chicken and 1/16 l milk formula per day.
Angwantibos eat about 85% animal prey, especially caterpillars, as Charles-Dominique found out by examination of stomach contents. Hairy caterpillars are eaten after removing parts of the irritating hair by "massage" with both hands (Charles-Dominique 1976).
In captivity angwantibos eat various fruits, boiled rice, insects, freshly killed mice, banana, minced raw meat, meat of birds and small earth-worms (Crandall 1964; Kolar 1967, quoting G. Durrell).
Pottos as an adaptation to dry season with limited food resources develop a thick fat layer during rain season, eating mainly insects and fruits; during dry season when food is scarce they are partly gum-eaters. Their long, sacculated colon and cecum may be regarded as an adaptation to digestion of the long-chained polysaccharides of gum. Pottos prefer slow invertebrates such as ants, beetles and snails they find on the surface of branches; they eat even poisonous and badly smelling species. If there are enough insects, they reject other food (Oates 1984). See also Charles-Dominique 1976, 1977 for use of the dentition for gum consumption.
In captivity pottos are reported to be omnivorous, but erratic in the choice of food, eating banana, other fruits and vegetable, boiled rice, milk, hard-boiled eggs, dog-food, raw horse meat and newly born mice. Minced meat and insects were partly rejected (Crandall 1964). (But see below: nutritional deficiencies).
Diet in captivity, examples
Slender loris diet at Ruhr-University Bochum:
Our lorises get the following diet per animal / day:
Recipe for milk formula for 10 slender lorises at Ruhr University bochum:
Diet may be slightly modified if necessary. If for instance old animals with kidney disease lose weight, they may get more mealworms
Loris diets at Brookfield Zoo (submitted by Carol Sodaro, changed)
|Slender lorises||Pygmy slow lorises|
|ZPD (canned zupreem primate diet)||12 g||12 g|
|Fruit||8.4 g||11.2 g|
|Steamed Sweet Potato||3 g||6 g|
|Leafy||3 g||4 g|
Dry Zupreem (dry biscuit version of the canned Zupreem diet)
Piece is a quarter of normal zupreem piece, not weighed
|---||0 to 1 piece per bowl|
|Crickets||handfed||2 pieces per bowl|
|Worms||handfed||2 pieces per bowl|
Loris diets at San Diego Zoo: see San
Diego loris husbansdry manual
Food-related problems in captivity
Since too abundant or wrong feeding, particuarly in slender lorises, can apparently lead to a wasting disease with symptoms of diabetes and kidney problems. Urine dipstick tests at intervals are recommended to recognize such problems early and to adapt diet adequately. At Ruhr-University, animals are used to spreading of plastic foil in the cage floor for this purpose; urine can then be collected easily.
Health problems due to insufficient nutrition in captivity have been reported. According to Manley (1966), they may partly be recognized by locomotor malfunctions. Carey and Carey (1967) describe a case of osteomalacia with limb deformation in a slender loris, caused by calcium deprivation, which was cured by giving more milk and additional vitamin D. Blackwell and Menzies (1968) report death of three pottos from osteodystrophia, probably because of too little calcium or too much phosphorus in the food. (Their diet consisted of various fruits, mostly banana, milk, hard-boiled eggs, newly-born mice and occasionally insects). Disturbances of equilibrium, partial paralysis and constipation in a young hand-reared potto developing at the age of 2.3 months could be cured with vitamin B added to the food (Rahm 1960). (In Microcebus murinus, according to Perret, 1982, ten cases of lower-limb paralysis (flaccid paralysis) were possibly caused by lack of B factors and hydromineral (Ca, Na, K) disturbance). In old animals with wasting disease, animals suffering from malnutrition because of inadequate diet and anmals suffering from severe othe disease cases of changes of the skin (unnormal pigmentation, partial hair loss, dry or sore skin) have occurred. In slow lorises in some cases such symptoms could be cured by improved diet with more vitamins and calcium. For primates with skin problems, in addition, an attempt to add omega fatty acids (for instance contained in linseed oil) to the food is recommended (J. Feuerstein 2001, e-mail-Information from alloprimate mailing list)
Wasting disease in captivity
A rather common problem in Loris is occurrence of weight loss and signs of malnutrition. Osman Hill (1937, based on almost 100 animals which survived captivity only for a few weeks to four years) reported loss of weight, pellagra-like condition, swollen hands and feet often exhibiting haemorrhages and loss of epidermis and shedding of hair from the limbs; no case was cured. Osman Hill believed these symptoms to be caused by some nutritional deficiency. Data collected at Ruhr-University however indicate that rather inadequately composed, possibly too abundant food in Loris may lead to disease with signs of diabetes, often with kidney problems, dysbacteriosis (Prof. Krüger, Veterinary Academy Leipzig, Germany, pers. comm.) and weight loss in spite of plenty of food available. Perret, 1982, reports similar problems in a breeding colony of Microcebus murinus. The data compiled at Ruhr-University include eight deaths with end stage of cystic kidney disease and ten cases of wasting disease for unknown reason (no postmortem report available) or without kidney disease diagnosed. At least three other deaths were due to diabetes, in one case too much insulin and enlarged Langerhans-islets were found. In addition, blood glucose tests in live Loris after too abundant feeding indicated diabetes, and urine dipstick tests in animals with signs of wasting disease showed that urine contained both glucose and protein.
Treatment of wasting disease with inulin
(based on results of a study by K. Petry for her thesis, will be
here later in more detail)
In animals suffering from problems with inadequate composition of intestinal flora because of inadequate captive diet, first 0.5 g inulin powder (made of jerusalem artichoke) per kg body weight was added to the milk formula daily for two weeks, then 1 g per kg body weight for two weeks; in addition, bacterial biopreparations (Bird Bene-Bac, E. coli filled into insects) were given for replacing normal intestinal flora (recommendation from Prof. Krüger, veterinarian academy Leipzig). After this treatment, in 12 of 14 animals with former dysbacteriosis intestinal flora was rather normal again. Lifelong supply of the animals with 0.5 g Inulin per kg body weight was recommended (Prof. Krüger, pers. comm.) Following this treatment, a lifelong supply with 0.5 g Inulin was recommended (tests confoirming this are made. E. coli supply for restauration of intestinal flora, however, must be tried with some caution because habits like urinewashing or touching the food with the hands and later urinemarking on branches touched with the hands during locomotion may lead to infection of the urethra, particularly in animals with glucose in the urine. Addition of inulin to the food in addition has a positive effect on the kidneys because a higher amount of urea is excreted via intestine (Prof. Krüger, Dr Plesker, pers. comm.; publications)
Other food-related problems
Deaths from trichobezoars were diagnosed in one Nycticebus and two Arctocebus (Manley (1966) and in two lorises at Ruhr-University; bezoars may develop because of normal grooming behaviour and subsequent swallowing of hair, which usually is found in faeces. In slender lorises, in one animal at Ruhr-University loss of weight, reduced food consumption, occasional coughing and subsequent chewing were observed before sudden death; the other loris showed no symptoms noticed by the keeper (both animals were rather old). Prophylactic addition of paraffin oil (H. Ribjer, pers. comm.) or of some product made for bezoar prophylaxis in cats (for instance Miturat Catlax) to the food at intervals may help to prevent such problems.
Among more frequently occurring problems, tooth problems due to tartar or root infection deserve mentioning; infected teeth may lead to disseminated bacterial infection and secondary disease (Sutherland-Smith, M.; Stalis, I., 1999). Development of tartar may be reduced by addition of some hard food items (for instance insects with hard chiniteous skeleton) which help to clean teeth, particularly if soft food items such as avocado or banana are given.
Food items and food supplements: product information
Sorts of tree exudates:
Sap (phloem sap, manna, sap), fresh, oozing from wounds on trees after gauging holes into the bark (From: http://www.hilltopanimalhospital.com/sugarglider.htm).
Gum: dried exudate from the injured bark of some tree species. Some gum is sweetish and apparently very nutritious, and can sustain life for days in the absence of other food (From: http://www.naturalhub.com/natural_food_guide_vegetables.htm). It has been suggested that high calcium content may make gum an essential component of diet of animals eating large quantities of insects, which contain little calcium (Barret 1984, quoting Bearder and Martin, 1980 b). But gum-producing Albizia sp., mentioned in this slow loris field study, were introduced, not native at Sungai Tekam.
Honeydew: exudate produced by some sapsucking insects (From: http://www.hilltopanimalhospital.com/sugarglider.htm).
References (nutrition in general):
Barrett, E., 1984: The ecology of some nocturnal, arboreal mammals in the rainforest of peninsular Malaysia. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.
Blackwell, K.; Menzies, J. I., 1968: Observations on the biology of the potto (Perodicticus potto, Miller). Mammalia 32: 447-451.
Carey, D. E.; Carey, E. E., 1967: Calcium deprivation and osteomalacia in a slender loris, Loris tardigradus (Linnaeus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63: 428-429.
Charles-Dominique, P., 1976: Ecology and feeding of five sympatric lorisids in Gabon. Pp. 131-150 in: Prosimian Behaviour, Martin, R. D.; Doyle, G. A.; Walker, A. C. (eds.), Duckworth, London.
Charles-Dominique, P., 1977: Ecology and Behaviour of nocturnal primates. Prosimians of Equatorial West Africa. Duckworth, London. ISBN: 0 7156 0983 1.
Crandall, L. S., 1964: Management of wild animals in captivity. Univ. of Chicago Press. (Pp. 74-82: Family Lorisidae. Lorises, pottos, and galagos).
Fitch-Snyder; Schulze, H.; Larsson, L. C., 2001: Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae (Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.
Fitch-Snyder, H.; Thanh, V. N., 2002: A Preliminary Survey of Lorises (Nycticebus Sp.) in Northern Vietnam. Asian Primates Vol. IIX No. 1 & 2.
Hladik, C. M.; Hladik, A., 1972: Disponibilités alimentaires et domaines vitaux des primates à Ceylan. (The food supplies and vital territories of primates in Ceylon). Terre vie 26: 149-215.
Hladik, C. M.; Petter, J. J., 1970: Le loris tardigrade. Observations de terrains effectuées à Ceylan. Science et Nature 101.
Kinnear, N. B., 1919: Notes on the Malabar slender loris, Loris lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 26: 836-837.
Kolar, K., 1967: Spitzhörnchen und Halbaffen [Tree shrews and prosimians]. Pp. 277-331 in: Grzimeks Tierleben Bd.10, Kindler Verlag, Zürich. (German)
Mackenzie, J. M. D., 1929: Food of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XXXIII (4): 971.
Manley, G. H., 1966: Prosimians as laboratory animals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 17: 11-39.
Montali, R. J.; Bush, M., 1999: Diseases of the Callitrichidae. Chapter 48, pp. 369-376 in: , 1999: Zoo & Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4. Fowler, Murray E; Miller, R. E. (eds.). W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia. (Hardcover, 747 pages)
Nekaris, K. A. I., 2000. The socioecology of the Mysore slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, South India. Dissertation, Washington University, Department of Anthropology.
Nekaris, K. A. I., 2001: Some Aspects of Feeding Ecology of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) at Dindigul District, South India. In: Loris homepage, nutrition chapter from the in: Loris in the wild, old address, http://www.nocturnalprimate.org/wilddiet.html, at present at http://ssl.brookes.ac.uk/nocturnalprimates/wilddiet.html. Seen: 15.07.01.
Nekaris, K. A. I.; Rasmussen, D. T., 2003: Diet of the Slender Loris. International Journal of Primatology. International Journal of Primatology 24 (1): 33-46
Oates, J. F., 1984: The niche of the potto, Perodicticus potto. Int. J. Primatol. 5 (1): 51-61.
Osman Hill, W. C., 1935: Breeding of loris in captivity. Nature 136: 107-108.
Osman Hill, W. C., 1937: Treatment of the slender loris in captivity. Loris, June 1937: 85-88.
Perret, M., 1982: Stress-effects in Microcebus murinus. Folia primatologica 39: 63-114.
Petter, J. J.; Hladik, C. M., 1970: Observations sur le domaine vital et la densite de population de Loris tardigradus dans les forets de Ceylan. Mammalia 34: 394-409.
Phillips, W. W. A., 1931: The food of the Ceylon slender loris in captivity. Spolia Zeylanica 16: 205-208.
Pollock, J. I., 1986: The management of prosimians in captivity for conservation and research. Pp. 269-288 in: Primates, The road to self-sustaining populations, K. Benirschke (ed.), Springer, New York
Rahm, U., 1960: Quelques notes sur le potto de Bosman. Bulletin de l´Institut Français d´Afrique Noire, series A 22: 331-341.
Streicher, U., June 2003 in press: Saisonale Veränderungen in Fellzeichnung und Fellfärbung beim Zwergplumplori (Nycticebus pygmaeus) und ihre taxonomische Bedeutung. [Seasonal variation in the fur marking patterns and colour in the pygmy slow loris],. Der Zoologische Garten. (German)
Subramoniam, S., 1957: Some observations on the habits of the slender loris, Loris tardigradus (Linne). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 54: 387-398.
Sutherland-Smith, M.; Stalis, I.: Review of loris clinical information and pathology data from the San Diego Zoo: 1982 - 1995. In: Fitch-Snyder, H.; Schulze, H.; Larsson, L. C. et al. (meeting edition published in 1999, update in press): Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae (Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551.
Tan, Ch. L.; Drake, J., 2001: Evidence of tree gougung and exudate eating in pygmy slow lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus). Folia Primatologica 72: 37-39.
Tenaza, R.; Fitch, H., 1984: The slow loris. Zoo nooz 57: 10-12.
Wiens, F., 1995: Verhaltensbeobachtungen am Plumplori, Nycticebus coucang (Primates: Lorisidae), im Freiland. Diplomarbeit im Fachbereich Biologie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main (unpublished) (German)
Wiens, F., 2002: Behaviour and ecology of
slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang): social organization,
system, and diet. Dissertation, faculty of Biology, chemistry
of Bayreuth University, February 2002
Some literature on the effect of inulin:
Delzenne, N. M.; Roberfroid, M. R., 1994: Physiological effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides. Lebensm. Wiss. u. Technol. 27: 1-6.
Niness, K. R., 1999: Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? Presented at the conference nutritional and Health Benefits of Inulin and Oligofructose, held May 18-19, 1998, in Bethesda, MD. Pp. 1402-1406 in the Symposium publication (guest editors: Milner, J. A.; Roberfroid, M.). American Society for Nutritional Science.
Sobotka, L.; Brátova, M.; Slemrova, M.; Manak, J.; Vizda, J.; Zadak, Z., 1997: Inulin as the soluble fiber in liquid enteral nutrition. Nutrition 13: 21-25. Elsevier Science Inc., USA.
Kleesen, B.; Sykura, B.; Zunft, H.-J.; Blaut, M., 1997: Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65: 1397-1402. American Society for Clinical Nutrition.
Rowland, I. R.; Rumney, C. J.; Coutts, J. T.;
L. C., 1998: Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and
gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-indiced aberrant crypt
rats. Carcinogenesis 19 (2): 281-285.
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