Home
Chapter Index
Population database index
Literature
Navigation

Figure 12.1: Definitions: names of teeth, sides, directions, tooth measurements
Figure 12.2 a: tooth cusp and style nomenclature, upper jaw
Figure 12.2 b: tooth cusp and style nomenclature, lower jaw
 

Definitions for standardized measuring and description of teeth and measurements found in loris and potto literature

Measurements of single teeth
Other measurements of dentition
Names, synonyms, approximate location of cusps, styles and other parts of teethin alphabetic order


Figure 12.1


Click to enlarge view

Sources: photos from Ruhr-University; Osman Hill 1953,
De Blase and Martin 1981, Swindler 1978

Figure 12.2 a

Figure 12.2 b








Definitions for standardized measuring and description of teeth and measurements found in loris and potto literature

Names of teeth:

Anterior teeth: incisors, canines

Posterior teeth: premolars, molars

Other names see figure 12.1
 

Measurements of single teeth [mm], based on Swindler (1976):

Unit for tooth measurements: [mm]. Recommendation: measuring of the right tooth; left, tooth only if the one on the right side is badly worn, absent or damaged. "It is well-known that there are very few significant differences between the dimensions of right and left teeth" (Swindler, 1976)

Alveolar length: greatest length of alveolus of any specified tooth.

Alveolar width: greatest width of alveolus of any specified tooth.

Canine breadth: buccolingual diameter taken at the cemento-enamel junction at a right angle to the mesiodistal diameter.

Canine length:
C1: maximum diameter from the mesial surface to the distolingual border
C1: mesio-distal diameter measured at the level of the mesial alveolar margin

Crown height (h): (Definition?)

Incisor breadth: bucco-lingual diameter taken at the cemento-enamel junction at a right angle to the mesiodistal diameter.

Incisor length (l): mesio-distal diameter taken at the incisal edge of each incisor.

Molar breadth = with (w): maximum buccolingual diameter measured at a right angle to the mesiodistal diameter; breadth of both trigone (trigonid) and talon (talonid) taken.

Molar length (l): maximum mesio-distal diameter taken horizontally between the points of contact with the next tooth. If there is no contact point because of a diastema or missing tooth, the most distant mesial / distal point is chosen instead.

Premolar breadth = with (w): as in molar breadth.

Premolar length (l): as in molar length.
 

Other measurements of dentition [mm], according to Schultz (1929), De Blase and Martin (1981), Lundrigan (1996), Molez-Verrière and Vincent (1995):

Diastema lengths: see figure. Definitions according to Schultz (1929), De Blase and Martin (1981), Lundrigan (1996), Molez-Verrière and Vincent (1995):
 

Diastema length between specified teeth: (for instance between C and P1): distance from the posterior margin of alveolus of cranial tooth to the anterior margin of caudel tooth specified.

Diastema length (mandible), general definition: from posterior margin of alveolus of last incisor present to anterior margin of alveolus of first cheek tooth present (DeBlase, Martin 1984) . In prosimians, the fact that the canine is small and incisiviform and the second premolar is caniniform must be considered.

Diastema length (maxilla), general definition: from posterior margin of alveolus of last incisor present to anterior margin of alveolus of first cheek tooth present (DeBlase, Martin 1984)


Mandibular diastema (DeBlase, Martin 1984): see diastema length (mandible).

Toothrow and other skull-related measurements see under definitions for skull measurements
 
 

Names, synonyms, approximate location of cusps, styles and other parts of teeth in alphabetic order (location on the tooth: see figure 12.2):

...id: suffix added to terms concerning lower dentition (Swindler 1976)

...conule, ...conulid (for instance metaconule, hypoconulid): minor cusps on the crests connecting the principal cusps (Swindler 1976)

...style, ...stylid: minor cusps belonging to the cingulum or cingulid if present; named for the related large cusps, e. g. protostyle or protostylid (Swindler, 1976).

Carabelli cusp: see under protostyle

cingulum, cingulid, see also under ...style: "girdled the primitive tooth; portions of it may still be present on teeth of extant primates. When present, these structures are noted by the suffix "style (stylid)" and are named for the related cusp, e. g. protostyle or protostylid (Swindler, 1976).

Cristid obliqua (Szalay 1969): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Cusp, cusplet (Hornbeck and Swindler 1967): tooth structure having structural or functional occlusal areal components delimited by developmental grooves and having independant apexes (Swindler 1976).

Distoconulus (Remane, 1960); synonym: postentoconule (Hershkovitz 1971): upper jaw.

Distostyle: see under metastyle

Distostyle (P2-4) (Kinzey 1973): upper jaw (Swindler 1976)

Distostylid: see under hypoconid

Ectostyle-1: see under mesostyle

Ectostylid (Kinzey 1973): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Entoconid (Osborn 1907): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Entocrista (Hershkovitz 1971): upper jaw (Swindler 1976)

Eocone: see under paracone.

Eoconid: see under paraconid.

Epicone: see under protocone.

Epiconid: see under protoconid

Hypocone: upper jaw. The distal expansion of the cingulum, forming a heel or talon, commonly presents a new cusp: the hypocone (Swindler 1976)

Hypoconid (Osborn 1907), synonym: distostylid (Vandebroek 1961): lower jaw (Swindler 1976)

Hypoconulid (Osborn 1907), synonym: parastylid: lower jaw (Swindler 1976)

Hypoflexid notch (Schwartz, Beutel 1995): Definition? Structure in the region of contact of cristid obliqua and metaconid?

Interconule: see under postprotostyle

Mesiostyle: see under parastyle

Mesostyle (Osborn 1907), synonym: ectostyle-1 (Hershkovitz 1971): upper jaw.

Metacone (Osborn 1907): upper jaw. Absent in most extant primates (Swindler 1976)

Metaconid (Osborn 1907): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Metastyle (Osborn 1907); synonym: distostyle (Vandebroek 1961): upper jaw. (Swindler 1976)

Metaconule (Osborn 1907); synonym: plagioconule (Vandebroek 1961): upper jaw. Absent in most extant primates

Metalophid: see under tuberculum sextum

Paracone (Osborn 1907); synonym: eocone (Vandebroek 1961): upper jaw. Absent in most extant primates

Paraconid (Osborn 1907); synonym: eoconid (Vandebroek 1961): lower jaw. Absent in most extant primates (Tarsius excepted) (Swindler, 1976)

Paracristid (Szalay 1969): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Paraconule: see under protoconule

Paralophid: see under postentocristid

Parastyle (Osborn 1907); synonym: mesiostyle (Vandebroek 1961): upper jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Parastylid: see under hypoconulid

Plagioconule: see under metaconule

Postentoconule: see under distoconulus

Postentoconulid: see under tuberculum intermedium

Postentocristid (Hershkovitz 1971); synonym: paralophid (Van Valen, 1966): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Postfossid: see under trigonid

Postmetaconulid: see under protostylid

Postmetacrista (Szalay 1969): upper jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Postmetacristid (Szalay 1969); synonym: prefossid (Van Valen, 1966): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Postprotostyle (Kinzey 1973); synonym: interconule (Remane 1960): upper jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Prefossid: see under postmetacristid

Premetacrista (Szalay 1969): upper jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Premetacristid: see under protocristid

Preprotocrista (Van Valen, 1966); synonym: protoloph (Remane, 1960): upper jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Protoconid (Osborn 1907); synonym: epiconid (Vandebroek 1961): lower jaw (Swindler 1976)

Protocone (Osborn 1907); synonym: epicone (Vandebroek 1961): upper jaw (Swindler 1976)

Protoconule (Osborn 1907); synonym: paraconule (Van Valen, 1966): upper jaw (Swindler 1976)

Protoconid (Osborn 1907); synonym: eoconid (Vandebroek, 1961): lower jaw (Swindler 1976)

Protocristid (Szalay 1969); synonym: premetacristid (H): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Protofossa: see under trigon

Protoloph: see under preprotocrista

Protolophid: see under tuberculum sextum

Protostyle (Kinzey 1973); synonym: Carabelli cusp: upper jaw, see under "...style" (Swindler 1976)

Protostylid (Kinzey 1973): lower jaw; see under "...style" (Swindler, 1976)

Talonid; talonid basin (Szalay 1969): lower jaw. Develops on the distal aspect of the trigonid and frequently bears three cusps: hypoconid, entoconid and hypoconulid (Swindler 1976)

Trigon, trigon basin (Szalay 1969); synonym: protofossa (Van Valen 1966): upper jaw: a three-cusped triangle formed by paracone, metacone and protocone (Swindler, 1976).

Trigonid; trigonid basin (Szalay 1969); synonym: postfossid (Van Valen, 1966): lower jaw. A three-cusped triangle formed by paraconid (which in primates is usually absent), metaconid and protoconid (Swindler, 1976).

Tuberculum intermedium (Remane 1960); synonym:postentoconulid (H): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)

Tuberculum sextum (Remane 1960); synonyms: metalophid (Osborn 1907), protolophid (Van Valen 1966): lower jaw (Swindler, 1976)
 
 

Back to the top of this page
 
 
Lorises and pottos: species, subspecies, local populations. In: http://www.species.net
Last amendment: 6 August 2002

Home Rescue Centers
Taxonomy, populations
Identification key Distribution maps Database for genera, species & populations
Info for field studies & wild population surveys Reintroduction to the wild Captive care
Conservation breeding
Diseases of lorises and pottos Behaviour General Info