Chapter Index

First aid for lorises and pottos

Compiled by H. Schulze. Coauthors in alphabetic order: K. Petry;  R. Plesker (Paul-Ehrlich Institute); H. Schulze; U. Streicher; more: see references. Revised by R. Plesker and U. Streicher.
One of us, Ulrike Streicher, kindly allowed use of unpublished thesis data from work at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center for this chapter, for support of other rescue facilities.

A) First judgement of a given situation (animal found, brought)
B) Initial help, also by non-veterinarians; safety considerations before handling animals
     Measures against shock and stress
     Collection of data and samples by non-veterinarian first helpers
C) Quarantine, inital veterinary treatment in rescue facilities
    Need for an initial recovery period
D) Examination, treatment, rehabilitation
Drafts for form sheets for first and final examination

This page tries to provide information both for veterinarians and non-veterinarian helpers such as local people, tourists who discover an animal in trouble and want to help, but also authorized persons without veterinary education (rangers, forest protection officers, field scientists, customs officers who have confiscated smuggled animals and need information for initial care and housing). For non-veterinarian helpers, information should be understandable without learning veterinarian terminology. Information which is only provided for veterinarians and zoo or rescue station personnel with the necessary skills (but maybe not familiar with lorises) is listed separately as far as possible (see headlines).

Initial explanation of some terms used here to avoid misunderstanding
(partly based on IUCN information and Griffith et al. 1998, see also reintroduction chapter):
Helper: see above
Rehabilitation: here used for the process of restoring an animal´s health, behavioural training and other measures prior to release
Translocation: transport of organisms or populations from one part of their range to another:
Conservation / benign introduction: an attempt to establish a species, for the purpose of conservation, within an appropriate habitat and eco-geographical area, but outside its recorded distribution area.
Reintroduction: an attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it had been extirpated or become extinct. (This term is sometimes used in a wider sense, including rehabilitation prior to release and monitoring after release).
Re-inforcement, Supplementation: addition of individuals to an existing population of conspecifics.
Release: used here for the process of release into the wild (preparations and later monitoring not included). May represent a part of a controlled procedure with rehabilitation and later monitoring, but also uncontrolled release of animals possibly sick or taxonomically not properly determined, with resultig danger of disease transmission or introduction of alien fauna.

A) Judgement of given situation

Some initial cautionary notes are necessary here. Catching a wild animal always means considerable distress and danger for its health, and catching may endanger helpers as well, both because of danger of disease transmission and, in lorises, effect of toxin from skin glands. Since reintroduction of animals to the wild is very difficult and may mean a threat to wild populations, removal from their natural environments and transport to some captive facility often means a permanent loss of freedom, and it may be doubted that a wild animal will have a better life in a cage. In many wild primates healed bone fractures have been found, observation showed that a wild slender loris with only one hand and a captive slow loris with only one leg apparently coped well with this handicap (A. Nekaris, H. Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm.). Careful consideration what will be best for the animal is necessary. An animal removed from its natural environment because it needed help must be released in the same environment as soon as it is cured and environmental conditions are suitable.
Anyone who does deal with wild lorises should be aware of the legal regulations concerning these animals. In almost all countries, e.g. Vietnam, lorises are strictly protected and dealing with them is subject to a special permission. Taking lorises - however sick - from a protected area is illegal and also an interference into a natural process. The fact that existing laws are wildly ignored should not encourage people that intend to help the species to do the same (one of us: U. Streicher).
See also pet info
A 1) Babies or infants found in the wild:
Slow loris and potto mothers regularly leave their infants alone while foraging. This is a normal behaviour called “infant parking”. Thus an infant found alone should be left where it is found and should not be touched. Slender lorises usually carry their infants in the first weeks of life, but then the infant may also wander around on its own while the mother stays hidden in the foliage.
Handrearing attempts are only necessary if an infant is found together with its dead mother, if it is confiscated alone or too sick to be mother-reared, for instance a slender loris infant which is unable to cling to the mother.

A 2) Adult animal found in the wild, appearing to be sick / needing help:A loris or potto may need help if it has severe wounds, if it is dragging one or two legs or if limbs are missing or burnt (frequent after contact with power lines). Animals which show severe breathing problems, which are obviously unable to climb a tree or have been caught by a domestic cat (even if they seem fine) might as well require assistance. Finally animals will need help if they are caught in traps or tangled in wire or thread (based on Ruth 2000; V. Perera, pers. comm., one of us: U. Streicher, and other sources, adapted). If so, see under B.
In pygmy slow lorises during cold weather occurrence of torpor has been observed (one of us: U. Streicher, thesis in preparation; K.-H. Schweigert, pers. comm.). A lethargic state of limited duration in a well-nourished animal might turn out to be be normal in this species.

A 3) Animals illegally offered for sale at an animal trader or on a market:
Buying animals means supporting trade and will cause much more misery than it prevents. It increases the demand and encourages hunting. It is more helpful to inform the local authorities or a rescue station (see rescue station list) (see rescue station list) to initiate correct confiscation procedures.

A 4) If an animal is found in an area not belonging to the natural distribution area of the species,
it may be a wrongly released animal from trade or an escaped or disposed pet. Taking the local legal regulations into consideration, capture of the animal with a minimum of distress may be tried (see under B 2); contacting the wildlife department or any other relevant authority or a primate rescue facility may be better since they have the expertise and equipment to recapture such an animal, the possibility to further take care of it legally or to assure return to the country from which it was smuggled. See rescue station list.

B) Initial help for wild animals in general, before transport to a veterinarian or rescue facility
The following part includes information for people who want to help an animal, but have no experience with animals or veterinary work

B 1) Safety
Terminate the dangers causing the present situation of the animal without taking a risk for people trying to help (removal from roads, electric power lines). If the animal is still in contact with or close to electric lines, safety of humans must be assured first, particularly in moist environments. Removing the animal with dry, electrically insulating material (e.g. a long dry wooden stick) should only be tried if the electricity cannot be switched off. See also: safety recommendations for handling the animals.
B 2) Catching and handling
Calm and deliberate action is important. A deep breath before acting may help; it may help to avoid mistakes and the animal will react positively to it (Ruth 2000)..
Catching an animal by cautiously driving it into some sort of transport container (card board box) without much handling is certainly better than seizing it, with regard to wounds, broken bones or other problems which might be aggravated, but also because dangerous distress is minimized. A container providing protection from sight on the environment, maybe containing some foliage in addition, in which the animal may feel hidden, would be useful, allowing the animal to recover from shock during transport to a veterinarian or rescue station. Of course there must be sufficient air supply if the animal is supposed to stay in the container for some time. The ability of lorises to squeeze through narrow clefts in a container not properly closed is sometimes underestimated.
Possible risks when handling lorises: despite of their rather short jaws, lorises can defend themselves well by biting fiercely with powerful muscles and pointed, cutting teeth. The bite of slow lorises and pottos is said to be poisonous and has in the past caused severe health problems (anaphylactic reaction) and occasionally probably even deaths in humans. Disease transmission, too, must be considered. If handling of an animal is necessary, strong leather gloves should be used. See also other protective measures.
B 3) Initial check:
Is there any severe bleeding which must be stopped immediately? Ruth (2000) recommends to stop bleeding by permanent pressure until the blood clots (without checking in between whether bleeding has stopped): if blood spurts from the wound (arterial bleeding), from above the wound for about 10 minutes, if blood flows (from a vein), by pressure from below the wound for at least 2 minutes, repeated, if necessary. Dabbing may disturb the clotting (Ruth, 2000). Wild animals, however, might be reluctant to endure such a procedure and struggle fiercely. Thus it might be better to avoid any contact with the wound to allow physiological processes to terminate the bleeding.
Can the animal breathe freely? Objects which are strangling the animal and objects in the mouth should be removed and, in case of weakness or loss of consciousness the animal should be brought into a position allowing to breathe without problems.
Fresh burns and scalds, also from electric contact: quick cooling with ice or cold water to help relieve the pain. But consideration whether the stress of treatment may be even worse for the animal also should be considered in such cases.
B 4) Shock and stress
might lead to health problems (severe circulatory problems, hypothermia), lasting organ lesions (liver necroses, fatty liver, bleeding gastric ulcera, with longer duration starvation) and death. Symptoms such as low body temperature, fast, shallow breathing, pale lips, tongue, gums and eye membranes may indicate shock, but also internal bleeding. Usually it will be best to leave the animal alone for at least half an hour in a quiet, warm container providing some possibility to hide such as foliage (keeping it warm because shock, weakness or malnutrition may lead to hypothermia) and to protect it from stressors as far as possible (noise, visible large moving objects) until it can be treated by a veterinarian (Ruth, 2000; observation from Ruhr-University). (In cases of severe shock half an hour may be too long, immediate treatment by a veterinarian may be more helpful. see C2). Observation through small holes in a transport container seems to cause only a limited amount of stress because fear depends on the size of visible objects.
Supply with liquid:  see also B5, C2.
Use of a tranquilizer (Diazepam) may reduce dangerous stress during longer transport or necessary handling, but on the other hand it has a relaxing effect on the muscles; equilibrium problems with higher dosage have been observed. This effect may be dangerous during transports because the animals cannot react properly on shaking of the transport box, protecting themselves from lesions. Use of tranquilizer before examination of a sick animal may mean a risk. Dosage: see information about tranquilizers.
B 5) Dehydration
occurs due to lack of water, extreme heat, prolongued or severe diarrhoea (Ruth, 2000). According to Kingdon (1997), Arctocebus aureus for instance are very susceptible to dehydration, do not tolerate heat and quickly die when exposed to the sun or kept without water. Dehydration has been observed in pygmy lorises confiscated from illegal trade in Vietnam. Starved and dehydrated infants may suckle on parts of the own body and drink their own urine (one of us: U. Streicher, thesis in preparation). Symptoms of severe dehydration are: “dehydration face” with small triangular-looking eyes deeply sunken into the orbits and visible nictitating membranes, loss of skin elasticity (when the skin is slightly squeezed to form a fold, healthy skin will return to former smooth shape again within about 2 seconds whereas in dehydrated animals the fold persists for some time) and non-responsiveness (one of us: U. Streicher, thesis in preparation; Plesker, pers. comm.; Ruth, 2000).
If these symptoms are observed, offering small pieces of water melon or grape or blanced liquid may allow the animal to regain balance of body fluids. If necessary, small amounts of liquid might be given by mouth several times within one hour, for instance with a pet nurser, syringe or eye dripple (Ruth, 2000). Electrolyte solution made of commercially available soluble rehydration salt can be used; if this is not available, Ruth (2000) recommends a solution made of 1 quart (= about 1 l) of warm water, 3 tablespoons of sugar and 1 tablespoon of salt. Commercially available liquids used by veterinarians for this purpose: see below, under C2: treatment of dehydration by the veterinarian.
B 6) Data which may be needed for later rehabilitation and release:
origin of the animal (for a possible later release to its proper habitat, avoiding to introduce taxonomically distinct animals from elsewhere into local populations, which may cause genetic problems),
circumstances in which the animal was found, observed possible causes of problems, measures already taken by the initially assisting person (important for the further correct care).

C) Quarantine, initial veterinary treatment, housing in a rescue facility

C 1) Quarantine (Danger of disease transmission)

Any animal with an unknown history might carry visibly or invisibly carry diseases and thus is  potential threat for other animals and even for humans. New arrivals at rescue facilities should generally be quarantined for some time to assure that they do not transmit diseases to resident animals. During quarantine the animal should be completely isolated from other animals.
Quarantine facilities should be easy to clean and disinfect, however they should provide a maximum of comfort for the newly arrived animal, particularly minimizing stress is important.
Laws for disease protection may be slightly different in different countries (Löhrmann, B., 1998).
Internationally valid laws for primate quarantain? See also quarantain regulations necessary before release to the wild.

C 2) Immediate measures

A recovery period of at least half an hour in a warm, quiet place before first treatment may be necessary, see above above under B 4; in cases of severe shock (symptoms: a low body temperature, fast, shallow breathing, pale gums, tongue and eye membranes), immediate treatment of shock may be necessary. In such cases treatment of dehydration can wait: see below, C3.

C 3) Measures after at least half an hour recovery

Removal of objects, dirt, maggots or maggot eggs from wounds. Ruth (2000) recommends to prevent hair from falling back into the wound by smearing petroleum jelly around the wound, but lorises lick everything within reach, cutting away some hair should be better. Rinsing of the wound itself with warm water, removal of remaining dirt with tweezers. Dissolving of an antiseptic for rinsing, for instance Rivanol (by Chinololfabrik, 30918 Seelze, Germany, containing Ethacridinlactat) or a comparable product in the water would be best if available (R. Plesker, pers. comm.); Rivanol tablets must be dissolved, in tropical climate they may clump together. Iodine is cheap and generally available. A 10% iodine solution is very efficient for wound disinfection.

Dehydration (see also above, B 5, first aid by non-veterinarians)
Sunken eyes with visible nictating membranes and loss of skin elasticity are signs of dehydration.
Treatment: offering rehydration solution or Ringer´s solution (Ruth 2000); in severe cases initially daily subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of Ringer´s solution (up to 10% of body weight) for stabilizing metabolism (one of us: U. Streicher, thesis in preparation). If available, use for instance Amynin by Merial GmbH, Am Söldnermoos 6, 85399 Hallbergmoos, Germany (comparable products available elsewhere?), which contains glucose for additional energy supply and important amino acids (the amino acid Methionin for instance may reduce the danger of fatty liver syndrome which is often fatal in lorises under severe stress and has other protective effects) (R. Plesker, pers. comm.; K. Petry, pers. comm.; Spona and Spona 2000).

C 4) Recovery period

The necessary recovery period before further treatment, allowing the animal to become a bit familiar with the new environment, may last some days (Löhrmann, 1998; adaptation to unfamiliar environments in lorises takes much longer); afterwards, the animal may be cautiously caught for a more detailed clinical examination and treatment. If handling causes panic struggling, fear cries or too heavy breathing, it may be better to leave the animal alone a bit longer before trying again (Ruth, 2000).
The recovery period may be used for observation through small holes, for instance in a blanket covering the cage front, for discovering possible symptoms of problems as for instance:

C 4) Adequate housing for minimizing stress

Particularly slender lorises and Arctocebus (sources: see chapter about stress) apparently may die from stress caused by transport to an unfamiliar environment, even if they are otherwise healthy. The reduction of stress thus must be a priority when housing lorises.  Symptoms of stress: see figures. Housing of animals in a quiet and moderately warm room (about 25-30 C?), in a cage with fronts at least initially covered, for instance with a blanket, is important for recovery of the animals from stress. (Movements of a human observer seen through small holes in a cage cover apparently do not cause problems because only larger visible stimuli promote distress). Cages should be furnished with horizontal branches and some cover (artificial or genuine plants, boxes), particularly in the upper part of the cage where the animals feel safest.
See also husbandry requirements.
If the animal is supposed to stay in captivity, habituation and taming reduces stress and excitement both for animals and keepers and allowing better health control. Training the animals to take a treat (e.g. titbits, grasshoppers, mealwors) from the keeper´s hand is useful. In animals which are supposed to be returned to the wild after recovery it is probably better to avoid habituation to humans which might increase the danger of being caught again for illegal trade. Therefore, in cages for such animals cage fronts permanently closed with the exception of small observation holes may be a good solution.

D 1) Clinical examination, treatment, rehabilitation

to discover major perceivable changes and to document the state for finding an individually adequate solution (Löhrmann, B., 1998; Ruth, 2000):

Notation of observed symptoms such as:

Trunk: wounds, condition of fur, signs of diarrhoea, nutritional state, skin indicating dehydration (see above, B 5)? Sickish odor? (Fear scent in a frightened loris is normal). Weight.

Limbs (also comparison of left and right limb to detect inconspicuous changes): swellings, lesions, fractures, burns, scalds?

Head: eyes bright or sunken, runny, swollen, crusty, closed or open? Response to light, visible movement? Abnormal movements of the head? Neck? Ear openings and nostrils clean, free of parasites or maggots? Is there a discharge? Muzzle: abnormal shape indicating absense of teeth or abscesses affecting tooth roots? Open wounds on dorsum of muzzle indicating breach of an abscess? (See photos below).

Mouth: gums, lips pale (possible sign of internal bleeding, anaemia or shock), dirt, objects or blood inside, tooth or jaw damage, inflammation / infection of gums?

Teeth: in lorises confiscated from illegal trade, often the teeth are ripped or broken out (own observation, H. Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm., F. den Haas, pers. comm.). This is done to prevent lorises from defending themselves before selling them as pets, and occasionally to cheat buyers, pretending to offer toothless baby lorises to obtain a higher prize than for adult animals (Jakarta Post, 2003). Removal of teeth with plyers on the market, without anesthesia or subsequent treatment, has been observed (R. Kess, P. Troni, pers. comm.). As a consequence, lorises confiscated or escaped from trade often have wounds and severe infections in the oral cavity which, without antibiotic treatment, may lead to the death of the animals (F. den Haas, pers. comm.). Subsequent infections of alveoli (tooth root channels) may cause abscesses which may destroy the bone (F. den Haas, pers. comm.) and may cause open wounds on top of the muzzle (H. Fitch-Snyder, pers. comm., see photos below).

Left: treatment of a confiscated slow loris in Jakarta whose teeth have been ripped out. Photo: H. Schulze. Middle, right: slow lorises showing superficial traces of abscesses on the muzzle. Such lesions can be the result of infections spreading along the tooth root channels after removal of the teeth. Photos: WildAid / MoE Cambodia, H. Fitch-Snyder.

Treatment of confiscated animals whose teeth had been ripped out:
Broken tooth remnants must be removed from the alveoli under anesthesia. In lorises, fine instruments and some practical experience will be necessary for properly doing this (one of us: U. Streicher). If no veterinarian with specific oral surgery and/or clinical dental knowledge is available, treatment by unskilled caretakers should be restricted to cautious cleaning of the oral cavity from broken or hanging dental parts which can easily be removed with the fingers, and the animals´ ability to heal the damage from within with the help of their own immune system should be supported by providing good housing, tasty food that can easily be eaten or lapped up without teeth during the healing process, a lot of rest in cages with natural cover, systemic antibiotics and some mild analgesic (David A. Fagan, The Colyer Institute, pers. comm.). (Soft food which, however, does not stick to the gums or gets into open wounds, supporting development of bacteria? Maybe minced, soft food with antibiotics added, consolidated with gelatin?)
Some more information for skilled veterinarians: as long as visible wounds in the oral cavity are not healed, the gums must be rinsed with antiseptic solution every day to remove food remnants and prevent or treat infections. Beta blockers, given about 15 minutes before this procedure, may help to reduce stress. Suppurating abscesses along tooth alveoli (see photos) may be present. In such cases, dead tissue and pus must be removed. For treatment of tooth root abscesses in rabbits, Avery Bennett (1999) recommends to start antibiotic treatment prior to any surgery and do skull radiographs under anesthesia to assess the extent of affected tissue. A bacterial culture from the wall of the abscess may help to determine the resistance against antibiotics (bacteria within the pus in the middle of the abscess are often dead). If there is no possibility to determine effect of antibiotics in culture, antibiotic treatment should be correlated to the clinical signs; when treatment turns out to be inefficient, another antibiotic treatment with a different spectrum of efficiency must be given (R. Plesker, pers. comm.; Avery Bennett 1999).
One technique for treating an abscess is to leave it open and allow pus to leak out, rinsing the cavity with antiseptic solution such as dilute chlorhexidine or dilute povidone iodine 2-3 times daily until healthy granulation tissue is present. According to Avery Bennett´s rabbit study, in abscesses of the head it is important not to drain the abscess into the oral cavity, if possible; this would result in poor and delayed wound healing. Treatment may be supported by use of enzymes after rinsing to help clean the wound of dead tissues, fibrinous slough and pus, such as papain/urea (which digests dead protein matter and liquefies pus, but is harmless to viable tissue; for instance Accuzyme) or trypsin (which digests collagen fibre remnants; for instance Santyl, Leukase, Ixurol). Leukase in cone shape for implantation by Merck, Wien, for instance combines antibiotic, analgetic and enzymatic effects. Papain or trypsin should be used according to operating instructions, and not in combination with commercially available non-enzyme wound cleaners. Treatment with an antibiotic cream or ointment should be continued until the inflammation is gone and the wound is well epithelialized (for at least 10 days, but usually longer; tooth root abscesses tend to reappear). This kind of treatment, however, means frequent handling and considerable distress for a wild animal.
Another technique used to treat rabbit abscesses involves surgical removal of the abscess, tooth remnants and infected tissue under full anesthesia and subsequent implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethyl methacrylate beads (AIPMMA) into the clean abscess cavity, where they will locally release antibiotic for up to five years. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a synthetic polymer substance most often used as bone cement, the beads need not be removed, they heal into the jaw bone. A big advantage of this method is that wound can be closed and no further treatment is necessary, which means a minimum of distress, it also helps minimize use of oral anibiotics  (Avery Bennett 1999; Jenkins). Further reading about antibiotic granules: see Tobias et al.1996 (see below: references).
Lorises lacking full dentition might, even after successful treatment, have lasting problems with food consumption. Inability of the animals to chew properly or to defend themselves must be considered both in diet and group composition in rescue facilities; housing lorises with and without teeth together might cause problems. But observations in this regard are still lacking. Inability to gauge holes into tree bark to lick up the sap, which in the wild is an important part of the diet (Wiens 2002), is certainly impossible without teeth. The ability of such animals to survive in the wild after release should be examined, maybe release on islands or in large semi-free enclosures and supplementation with adequate food remains the only option for their longterm survival.

If necessary: further diagnostic possibilities such as smears, x-ray; blood examination for detection of inflammatory processes, metabolic disturbance (liver, kidney) or serologically recognizable disease (Löhrmann 1998).
(How to take blood samples from lorises)
Non-invasive urine dipstick tests for instance for kidney disease caused by wrong captive nutrition or liver disease caused by stress.

Fecal analyses  including parasitological and microbial examination


D2) Prophylactic treatment against verminous parasites (nematodes, cestodes), , other parasites, see disease tables.

Anesthesia and tranquilizers in lorises (some general information);
        experience with anesthesia in N. pygmaeus at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center (by U. Streicher)
Correct placement of injections in lorises (in preparation)
Experience with antibiotics in lorises (in preparation)
Appendix: draft for form sheets for examination of animals in a rescue facility. Based on Löhrmann, 1998, changed.

Avery-Bennett, R., 1999: Management of abscesses of the head in rabbits. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, 1999, pp 822-823, Orlando, FL., online at http://www.mth.kcl.ac.uk/%7Ellandau/Homepage/Rabbit/abscess.html. College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Seen 24 February 2004.

Tobias, K. M.; Schneider, R. K.; Besser, T. E., 1996: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated polymethyl methacrylate . J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 208 (6): 841-5.

Glandt, D.; Münch, S. (eds.), 1998: Internationaler Artenschutz in Deutschland - Unterbringung und Vermittlung beschlagnahmter Tiere [International species conservation in Germany - housing and mediation of confiscated animals]. Results of a symposium, 11-13 June 1996 in the Biological Institute Metelen e. V., Metelen, Germany. Edited by Biological Institute Metelen e. V., ISSN: 0936-7357. (German)

Jakarta Post, 2002: Tricks of the protected animal trade. http://www.orangutansonline.com/articles/article108.htm. 27 August 2002. Seen 30 March 2003

Jenkins, J. R.: New Bead Treatment for Jaw Abscesses. http://www.rabbit.org/chapters/san-diego/health/vet-talk/beadtherapy.html. Undated information in the house rabbit society website, http://www.rabbit.org/, Vet Talk pages by Dr. Jeffrey Jenkins. Seen 24 February 2004.

Kingdon, J., 1997: The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London.

Löhrmann, B., 1998: Tierärztliche Versorgung beschlagnamter Tiere im Biologischen Institut Metelen [Veterinary care for confiscated animals at the Biological Institute Metelen]. Pp. 111-114 in: Glandt, D.; Münch, S. (eds.): Internationaler Artenschutz in Deutschland - Unterbringung und Vermittlung beschlagnamter Tiere [International species conservation in Germany - housing and mediation of confiscated animals]. Results of a symposium, 11-13 June 1996 in the Biological Institute Metelen e. V., Metelen, Germany. Edited by Biological Institute Metelen e. V., ISSN: 0936-7357.  (German)
Plesker, R., primate pathologist, Paul-Ehrlich Institut, Germany, pers. comm.
Ruth, I., (2000): First aid for wildlife. Basic care for birds and mammals. Second edition. Bick publishing House, Madison, CT.   ISBN: 1-884-158148
Spona, J.; Spona, I., 2000: VITALOGIC website about amino acids, Vienna Medical School, Vienna University, Austria. http://www.vitalogic.net/fachaminos.htm. Seen 05 Feb. 02.
Streicher, U., 2000-2004: unpublished data from work as a veterinarian at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Vietnam, including data from:
      Streicher, U., thesis in preparation.
Data from the breeding colony at Ruhr-University, 1980-2001, including data by H. Schulze, B. Meier and post mortem reports from animals from this colony by R. Plesker, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut.
Wiens, F., 2002: Behaviour and ecology of wild slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang): social organisation, infant care system, and diet. Dissertation, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry and Geosciences, Bayreuth University.


Privacy policy / Datenschutz

Back to the top of this page

Loris and related species: health
Last amendment: 9 December 2004
Home Rescue Centers
Taxonomy, populations
Identification key Distribution maps Database for genera, species & populations
Info for field studies & wild population surveys Reintroduction to the wild Captive care
Conservation breeding
Diseases of lorises and pottos Behaviour General Info