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Environmental enrichment for lorises and pottos
Compiled by Helga Schulze, with support by Anne Miehs, Oxford / Nocturnal primate Research Group, and Richard Perron, Quantum Conservation. More coauthors and supporters
This chapter of the loris and potto conservation database is also meant to be a studbook supplement and part of the slender loris EEP to provide cooperating zoos with useful information.
Under construction
 

Content:

Introduction, general considerations
     Index: species - characteristics, sensory abilities and recommended enrichment methods
     Index: lorisid behaviours and how to promote them
     Index: enrichment methods
     Index: coauthors annd supporters

Other sources, literature:
Links to some other enrichment websites
Some loris and potto enrichment literature
Some general enrichment literature
Enrichment mailing list




Introduction, general considerations

Behavioural or environmental enrichment may be tried for a variety of purposes, including entertainment for the animals, health and other considerations. Choice of enrichment methods may depend on the purpose why animals are kept. In zoos, exhibits with active animals are more interesting for zoo visitors and education purposes. In longterm breeding projects with wild species for a possible later reintroduction, it may be important to maintain specific behavioural traits necessary in the wild and to minimize unnatural selective pressure changing the genetic properties of the population. In rescue facilities and reintroduction programs, training of behaviour which will allow survival in the wild are important. Information about sensory abilities and the behavioural repertoire of the species is necessary to avoid an anthropomorphic approach which creates new unnatural behaviour, and field data about ecology and behaviour are needed for creating captive environments which encourage near-natural behaviour.

Some information about the behaviour of other animal species is for instance available in the website http://www.ethograms.org/. Literature about loris and potto behaviour: see behaviour literature page in this website; an ethogram for lorises and pottos is in preparation




Basic information on species and subspecies; enrichment methods
Under construction
Environmental enrichment for:
    Loris, slender lorises   Contains a precursor / empty page. Not yet worth looking into this
    Nycticebus pygmaeus, pygmy or lesser slow lorises   Contains a precursor / empty page. Not yet worth looking into this
    Nycticebus bengalensis, N. coucang, N. (coucang) javanicus, slow lorises
       Contains a precursor / empty page. Not yet worth looking into this
    Perodicticus potto, pottos   Contains a precursor / empty page. Not yet worth looking into this
    Arctocebus calabarensis, A. aureus, Angwantibos   Contains a precursor / empty page. Not yet worth looking into this



Index of behaviours and how to promote them
Under construction
 
 
Behaviour supported:  Purpose of behavioural enrichment Experience
Gouging / gnawing holes in tree bark, feeding on sap or gum Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive
Recommended for rehabilitation and pre-release training

 
 
Behaviour supported: 
gouging holes in tree bark, feeding on sap or gum
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to behaviour important for the species in the wild
X Enrichment methods not yet tested in Loris
Successfully tested in marmosets
 
xxxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 
xxxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 
xxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 




Index of enrichment methods
Under construction
 
 
 
Enrichment method Purpose of behavioural enrichment Purpose of behavioural enrichment
Gouging / gnawing holes in tree bark, feeding on sap or gum Fresh branches cut from easily cultivated trees for near-natural gauging behaviour (by U. Streicher, EPRC) Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive

 
 
 
Enrichment device: 
xxxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to behaviour important for the species in the wild
X Enrichment methods successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 
xxxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 
xxxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 
xxx
X
Aiming at behaviour observed both in the wild and captive X Related to important behaviour in the wild
Successfully tested in marmosets
Not yet tested in Loris
 




Index of coauthors and supporters
Under construction

Eberhard Curio, Philippine Endemic Species Conservation Project,
Danielle Smith, small mammal keeper, London Zoo. contributed enrichment ideas
Anne Miehs, Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, helped compile information, searched for literature and supported the project in other regards
Richard Perron, Quantum Conservation, contributed and discussed basic ideas for the content and form of enrichment websites
Urike Streicher, Endangered Primate Rescue Center (Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam) contributed unpublished field data and photos from her thesis and experience from keeping Nycticebus pygmaeus.




Some loris and potto enrichment references

Boettcher-Law, L.: An enriched environment. Pp. 80-88 in: Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Fitch-Snyder, H.; Schulze, H. (eds.); Larson, L. (compiler). Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551. Online edition.

Craig, J.; Reed, C., 2003: Diet-based enrichment ideas for small primates. International Zoo News 50 (1): 16-20.
     (Includes enrichment for N. pygmaeus)

Dill, E., 2003: Enriching the lives of prosimian primates.The shape of enrichment 12 (2): 1-6.    (Includes information on mixed species housing and a feeder for Loris)

Lester, B.: Mixed species housing. Pp. 88-92 in: Management of Lorises in captivity. A husbandry manual for Asian Loridae Nycticebus & Loris spp.). Fitch-Snyder, H.; Schulze, H. (eds.); Larson, L. (compiler), Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, Box 551, San Diego, CA 92112-0551. Online edition.

MacGregor, N.; Chepko-Sade, B., 1998: Slow loris enrichment at the Burnet Park Zoo. The shape of enrichment 7 (3): 9-11.

MacGregor, N.; Chepko-Sade, B., 1999: Slow loris food enrichment and water presentation modification at the Burnet Park Zoo, Syracuse, New York. In: 1998 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. (AZA = American Zoo and Aquarium Association)

The Fort Worth Zoo enrichment online pages - index to loris and potto enrichment methods




Some general enrichment literature

(See also http://www.enrichment.org/bookstore.html in the "shape of enrichment" website)

Chamove, A. S., 1989: Environmental enrichment: a review. Animal technology 40: 155-178.

Chamove, A. S.; Anderson, J. R., 1989: Examining environmental enrichment. Pp. 183-202 in: Segal, E. F. (ed.): Housing, care and psychological wellbeing of captive and laboratory primates. Noyes publications, Park Ridge, NJ
      Keywords: Cage size vs. "psychological cage size" (utilization of space, cage furnishing), music against behavioural disturbance

Chamove, A. S.; Anderson, J. R. et al. , 1982: Deep woodchip litter: hygiene, feeding  and behavioral enhancement in eight primate species. International Journal for the study of animal problems 3: 308-318.

Chivers, D., 1991: Species differences in tolerance to environmental change. Pp. 5-37 in: Primate responses to environmental changes, Box, H. O. (ed.), Chapman and Hall, London.
      Keyword: stress

Hancocks, D., 1980: Bringing nature into the zoo: inexpensive solutions for zoo environments. International Journal of the Study Animal Problems 1 (3): 170-177.

Kuyk, K.; Oswald, M., 1978: Interspecific compatibility and interactions of two nocturnal mammals in a naturalistic multispecific enclosure. Pp 151-156 in: Crockett, C.; Hutchins, M. (eds.): Applied behavioral research at the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Seattle, Washington 1977. Pika Press, Seattle.
       Keywords: mixed species, porcupines, Galago crassicaudatus

Maple, T. L.; Perkins, L. A., 1996: Enclosure furnishings and structural environmental enrichment . Pp. 212-222 in: Kleiman, D. G.; Allen, M. E.; Thompson, K. V.; Lumpkin, S. (eds.): Wild mammals in captivity. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, London.  ISBN: 0-226-44002-8 (cloth), 0-226-44003-6 (paper).

Markowitz, H., 1982: Behavioural Enrichment in the Zoo. Van Hostrand Rheinhold, New York.

Poole, T. B., 1991: Criteria for the provision of captive environments. Pp. 357-374 in: Box, H. O. (ed.): Primate responses to environmental changes, Chapman and Hall, London.
      Keywords: cage size, social behaviour, environmental enrichment, anti-stress-training

Scott, W. L., 1987: Environmental enrichment for laboratory primates. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 190 (7): 854-859.

Shepherdson, D. J.; Mellen, J. D.; Hutchins, M. (eds.), 1997: Second nature - environmental enrichment for captive animals. Smithsonian Books / Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC.. ISBN: 1560983973.
   Other volumes of this series: see http://www.enrichment.org/proceedings.html.

Shepherdson, D., 1994: The role of environmental enrichment in the captive breeding and reintroduction of endangered species. Pp. 168-177 in: Creative conservation: interactive management of wild and captive animals. 1st edition. Olney, P. J. S.; MacE, G. M.; Feistner, A. T. C. (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, New York. ISBN: 0412495708

Young, R. J., 2003: Environmental enrichment for captive animals. UFAW, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. ISBN: 0632064072




Links to some general enrichment websites

The Fort Worth Zoo enrichment online pages: http://www.enrichmentonline.org. A collection of enrichment methods; search per species and per keyword possible.
     With link page: sources where to obtain material and enrichment devices

The Toronto Zoo enrichment resources: http://www.torontozoo.com/meet_animals/enrichment/resources.htm, with enrichment ideas for a variety of species and a list of enrichment items used

Animal Welfare Institute:http://www.awionline.org/lab_animals/biblio/index.html. Annotated bibliography on refinement and environmental enrichment for primates kept in laboratories

The shape of enrichment: International conferences on environmental enrichment - ordering information for publications based on past meetings and for a quarterly publication for exchanging ideas among animal caretakers: http://www.enrichment.org/




Enrichment mailing list

Primate enrichment forum (PEF): http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/infoserv/forums/pef/. A mailing list of the National Primate Research Center, University of Washington - Madison
 
 

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Loris and potto conservation database - captive care / nutrition  Last amendment: 20 August 2004

 

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