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Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines (Nycticebus & Loris ssp.)

Table of contents
.

TAXONOMY AND DESCRIPTION
1
DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS
7
HISTORY OF LORISES IN CAPTIVITY
13
BEHAVIOR
14
Introduction
14
Social Behavior
14
Housing and Social Behavior
15
Aggressive Behavior
16
Loris Ethogram
18
REPRODUCTION
28
Determining Gender
28
Adolescent Development
29
Estrous Cycles
30
Gonadal Morphology in Males
30
Copulation
32
Gestation
33
Parturition
33
Reaction of Others to Newborns
34
Resumption of Estrus
35
Interbirth Interval
35
Reproductive Seasonality
36
Litter Size
38
Infant Development and Parental Behavior
39
Captive Reproductive History
41
INFANT CARE
45
Birth Management and Hand Rearing 
-contributed by Janet Hawes and Jacqueline Ogden.
45
Hand Rearing
45
Post-Partum Observations and Evaluation
45
Alternatives to Hand Rearing
45
Physical Needs
46
Physical Needs: Species-Specific Concerns
49
Social Needs
50
DIET
52
Diet Composition in the Wild
52
Diet Composition in Captivity
53
Diet Composition in Captivity for the Pygmy Loris 
-contributed by Barbara Toddes and Kerri Slifka
55
HEALTH
60
Review of Loris Clinical Information and Pathology Data from the San Diego Zoo: 1982-1995 
-contributed by Meg Sutherland Smith, D.V.M. and Ilse Stalis, D.V.M. .
60
Introduction
60
Preventive Medicine
60
Anesthesia
60
Clinical Pathology
61
Medical Review
61
Summary
65
 Tables
66
HABITAT DESIGN
71
Minimum Standards for Housing Asian Lorisines 
(Adapted from AZA guidelines for the Family Lorisidae) 
-contributed by Lisa Bottcher-Law
71
General Habitat Design
72
Temperature Levels
78
Lighting Conditions 
78
Cleaning Cages
79
An Enriched Environment 
-contributed by Lisa Bottcher-Law
80
Mixed Species Housing 
-contributed by Barbara Lester
88
LITERATURE CITED
93
MAP REFERENCES
102
N. coucang distribution map (Figure 9)
102
N. pygmaeus distribution map (Figure 10)
103
Loris distribution maps (Figure 11)
104

 

List of tables


. .
Page
Table 1:  Taxonomy of the Asian lorises
1
Table 2:  Subspecies of the slow loris
5
Table 3:  Forms of the pygmy loris
5
Table 4:  Subspecies of the slender loris
6
Table 5:  Parental age at time of birth of first offspring
30
Table 6:  Interbirth intervals
36
Table 7:  Age specific fertility rates
43
Table 8:  Mean number of litters
43
Table 9:  Litter production by adults
44
Table 10:  Scale of maternal care
46
Table 11:  Infant diet schedule
48
Table 12:  Infant formula schedule
49
Table 13:  Sample reintroduction schedule
51
Table 14:  The diet of N. coucang at Sungai Tekam
52
Table 15:  Identified food items in the diet of N. coucang
52
Table 16:  Nutritional information from Ruhr-University Bochum for slender lorises
54
Table 17:  Daily diet of lorises
54
Table 18:  Nutrient density
58
Table 19:  Nutrient requirements
59
Table 20:  Anesthetic agents used in three loris species
61
Table 21:  Population demographics for loris species reviewed
61
Table 22:  Mortality in Nycticebus coucang at the Duke Primate Center
66
Table 23:  Mortality in Nycticebus pygmaeus at the Duke Primate Center
66
Table 24:  Mortality in Loris tardigradus at the Duke Primate Center
66
Table 25:  ISIS Clinical Pathology Reference Ranges in Slow Loris
67
Table 26:  ISIS Clinical Pathology Reference Ranges in Pygmy Loris
68
Table 27:  ISIS Clinical Pathology Reference Ranges in Slender Loris
69
Table 28:  Enrichment log
83
Table 29:  Browse list
86
Table 30:  Specialty foods
87
Table 31:  Species that have been successfully kept with pygmy lorises
90
Table 32:  Species that have been successfully kept with slow lorises
91
Table 33:  Species that have been successfully kept with slender lorises
92

 

List of figures


. .
Page
Figure 1:  Genus Nycticebus
1, 2
Figure 2:  Genus Loris
2
Figure 3:  Genus Arctocebus
2
Figure 4:  Genus Perodicticus
3
Figure 5:  Length of nuchal spines in Perodicticus potto
3
Figure 6:  Anatomy of the hand in Loris
3
Figure 7:  Some structures in the mouth of Loris tardigradus
3
Figure 8:  Some skin glands found in prosimian primates
4
Figure 9:  Distribution area and specimen localities of N. coucang
7
Figure 10:  Distribution area and specimen localities of N. pygmaeus
9
Figure 11:  Distribution of slender loris subspecies in India
10
Figure 12:  Distribution of slender loris subspecies in Sri Lanka
11
Figure 13:  Discrimination of sex in lorises
28
Figure 14:  Signs of estrus in lorises and pottos
31
Figure 15:  Female N. coucang licking infant and eating placenta
33
Figure 16:  L. t. nordicus parturition
34
Figure 17:  Slow Loris - number of births per month
37
Figure 18:  Pygmy Loris - number of births per month
37
Figure 19:  Slender Loris - number of births per month
38
Figure 20:  The early developmental stages of a slender loris
40
Figure 21:  Slow Loris births in North America 1951-1998
41
Figure 22:  Pygmy Loris births in North America 1986-1994
42
Figure 23:  Slender Loris births in North America 1963-1994
42
Figure 24:  Mean number of litters produced by successful breeders
44
Figure 25:  Female N. pygmaeus with twins
51
Figure 26:  Anatomy of Slender Loris
70
Figure 27:  Skeletal structure of Slender Loris
70
Figure 28:  Skull morphology of Slender Loris
70
Figure 29:  Examples of an adequately furnished cage for slender & slow lorises
74
Figure 30:  Choice of sleeping places and meaning of different sleeping postures
76
Figure 31:  Substrate use by captive Slender Loris
77

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Management of Lorises in Captivity. A Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines (Nycticebus & Loris ssp.)
Edited by: Helena Fitch-Snyder and Helga Schulze. Compiler: Lena C. Larsen
Last amendment: 2 January 2003

 

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